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The Rules of Breastfeeding

Issue 857: When a woman breast feeds a male child with the conditions whose explanation is upcoming in the attached issues, she will become in the ruling of the child's mother and the owner of the milk (meaning the man who caused the pregnancy from which the milk issues) will be in the ruling of the child's father; his father will be in the ruling of the child's grandfather; his mother in the ruling of the child's grandmother; his sister will be in the ruling of his maternal aunt; his children will be in the ruling of his brothers and sisters; the brother of his mother will be in the ruling of his maternal uncle and his sister will be in the ruling of his maternal aunt.

Likewise, with relation to the female child, when a woman breast feeds her, it becomes forbidden for the husband of the breast feeding woman (to marry, with the condition that her husband already had intercourse with the wife). As such, it is not permitted for people to marry the mother of his wife by breast feeding because she is in the ruling of his real mother. With another expression, when a woman breast feeds a child with the conditions which will be mentioned in the attached issues, that child will become a close relative (Mahram) for the following:

1) That same woman who breast fed him, she is called the mother by breast feeding.

2) The husband of that woman, he is called the father by breast feeding.

3) The parents of that woman, although they are ascending (the family tree) and even her parents by breast feeding.

4) The existing children of that woman or those who will be born.

5) The children of the children of that woman although they descend (the family tree) whether they exist or will be born afterward.

6) The brothers and sisters of that woman, although they might be (brothers and sisters) from breast feeding.

7) The paternal aunts and uncles, although they might be (paternal aunts and uncles) from breast feeding.

8) The maternal aunts and uncles, although they might be (maternal aunts and uncles) from breast feeding.

9) The children of the husband of that woman who is the owner of the milk, although they descend (the family tree) and although they might be (his children) from breast feeding.

10) The parents of the husband of that woman who is the owner of the milk, although they be (his parents) by breast feeding.

11) The brothers and sisters of the husband of that woman who is the owner of the milk, although they be (brothers and sisters) by breast feeding.

12) The paternal aunts and uncles and the maternal aunts and uncles of the husband of that woman whom he is the owner of milk, although they ascend (the family tree) and though they be (is uncle or aunt) by breast feeding.

Likewise, there is another group whose mention will be forthcoming in the attached issues. They will all become a close relative (Mahram) to the child who that woman had breast fed by reason of breast feeding.

Issue 858: When a woman breast feeds a child with the conditions whose explanation is upcoming, it is not permissible for the parents of that child to marry the children who are born from that woman. Likewise, according to obligatory precaution, it is not permissible for them to marry the children of her husband who is the owner of her milk. Rather, the precaution is that they not marry with his children by breast feeding. However, there is no objection nor anything preventing them from marrying the children by breast feeding of that woman from another husband.

Issue 859: It is not allowed for a woman to breast feed the child of her daughter with a complete breast feeding because she would become forbidden for her husband by that. And it could become a cause of a great scandal. It is likewise when she breast feeds a child for her husband's children by another wife. However, there is not preventing her from breast feeding the son of her son.

The Conditions of the Prohibiting Breastfeeding

Issue 860: When a woman breast feeds a child, the breast fed child becomes a close relative (Mahram) with nine conditions, they are:

1) That the milk be from childbirth. Due to this, when milk is taken from the breast of a woman without the birth of a child, then, she breast feeds a child, the breast fed child does not become a close relative.

2) That the breast feeding of the child be from a living woman. When the breast of a deceased woman is placed in the mouth of a child and he suckles milk from, the breast fed child does not become a close relative.

3) That the milk (not result from) an unlawful (relationship). When a child is breast fed from the milk of a woman connected to child born from fornication, it does bring about a close relationship.

4) That the milk be suckled from the breast, however, the obligatory precaution is that there be no marriage with that woman and her close relatives, although the milk is poured into the mouth of the child.

5) That the milk not be mixed with something else.

6) That the milk be from one husband. According to this, when the woman in whose breast there is milk is divorced, then, another man marries her, then, she becomes pregnant from him and milk remains in her breast from the first husband until the time of delivery and the child had been nursed, for example, with eight breast feedings from her milk from the first husband and seven breast feedings from the milk of her second husband, this child will not become forbidden for anyone. Likewise, when a woman breast feeds a child from the milk of her first husband in a complete fashion, then, she breast feeds another child from the milk of the second husband, the first child does not become a close relative of the second child.

7) That the child does not vomit the milk which it has drank due to illness. However, the obligatory precaution is that those who become a close relative with that child by reason of his breast feeding avoid marriage to him and that they also not view him with the view a close relative (Mahram) views (another) close relative.

8) That the child be breast fed fifteen feedings or be breast fed one complete day and night or be breast fed in the amount that it can be said that its bones has been strengthened (from the breast feeding) and his flesh has grown from that milk. The recommended precaution is that when the child was fed with fifteen breast feedings, that those who become close relatives (Mahram) by means of breast feeding not marry him and also not view him with the view that a close relative views (another) close relative.

9) That the child be within the first two years. Then, when a child is breast fed beyond the two years of his life, he does not become a close relative of anyone. Rather, even when he was breast fed fourteen feedings before the termination of the two years and breast fed after the conclusion of the two years, he does not become a close relative of anyone.

However, when two years have passed since the birth of a child for woman and milk remains and, then, she breast feeds a child. The obligatory precaution is that (the child) not marry with woman who become a close relative to him by reason of breast feeding and that he also not look at them with the view (allowed for one) close for (another) close relative.

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