The Prophet stayed in Mecca for three days. There he married Maymunah al‑Hilaliyyah, daughter of al‑Harith. He left Mecca and went into her in a place called Sarf (outside the city); he then returned to Medina, where he remained till the beginning of the eighth year of the Hijrah.
The engagement of Mu'tah (on the borders of Syria) took place in Jumada 'l-Ula (August, 629). The Prophet dispatched a large army under the leadership of Zayd ibn al‑Harithah. He directed that if Zayd were killed, then Ja'far ibn Abi Talib would take his place. If Ja`far were also slain, then `Abdullah ibn Rawahah should succeed him. Should he too be slain, then the Muslims must choose one from among themselves to be their leader. In a tradition related by Aban ibn `Uthman on the authority of the sixth Imam as‑Sadiq, we are told that the Prophet appointed Ja'far as their leader. Should he be killed, then Zayd would succeed him, and if Zayd were also to be slain, then `Abdullah ibn Rawahah would assume the leadership of the army.
The men set out, and when they reached Ma'an (on the pilgrimage route between Mecca and Syria), they heard that Hiraql (Heraclius) had encamped at a nearby place called Ma'rib with an army of 100,000 Byzantine and a similar number of Arabized people. According to Aban ibn `Uthman, they heard of the great multitudes of the rejecters of faith, both Arabs and non‑Arabs: the Lakhm, Judham, Baliyy and Quda'ah. The Associators then moved to a place called al-Masharif. Swords are called `al‑mashrafiyyah' because they were manufactured for Solomon son of David in that place.
The Muslim fighters encamped in Ma'an for two days. After consulting with one another, they decided to send word to the Messenger of Allah telling him of the large numbers of their enemies, and await his instructions. But `Abdullah ibn Rawahah objected saying: “O people ‑ by Allah, we fight not with our numbers, but with this faith with which Allah has honoured us.” They all agreed saying: “You speak the truth! ” Thus they prepared for war, even though they were only three thousand. They met the Byzantine armies in a town of the land of Balqa' called Sharf. The Muslims then moved to Mu'tah, a small town near al‑Ahsa'.
It is related on the authority of Anas ibn Malik that: “Allah announced to the Prophet the death of Ja`far, Zayd ibn al‑Harithah and `Abdullah ibn Rawahah before the news reached him.” His eyes were filled with tears, as related by al‑Bukhari in his as‑Sahih.1 Aban related on the authority of Abu Ja'far (the fifth Imam): “Ja'far fell on that day having sustained fifty wounds, twenty‑five of which were to his face.”
Ja'far's son `Abdullah said: “I remember when the Messenger of Allah came to my mother to announce to her the death of my father. I looked at him while he stroked me and my brother on the head, his eyes flowing with tears until his beard was soaked. He then said: `O Allah, behold: Ja'far has come to you, to the best of rewards. Grant that his progeny be among the best you have granted any of your servants.' He then addressed my mother saying: `O Asma', shall I announce the good news to you?' `Yes', she answered, `may my father and mother be a ransom for you, O Apostle of Allah!' He said: `Allah has granted Ja'far two wings with which to soar in Paradise.' `Tell people about it', she demanded.
The Messenger of Allah then arose and took me by the hand, all the while patting me on the head, until he went up on to his pulpit and seated me before him on the lowest step. Sorrow was visible in his face. He addressed the people saying: `A man feels great sorrow at the death of his brother or his cousin. Ja'far has been martyred. He was given two wings with which to soar in Paradise.' He then came down and went into his home. He took me with him and ordered that some food be prepared for me. He also sent for my brother, so that we both ate with him a blessed meal.
We stayed in his home for three days, accompanying him wherever he went around his wives' chambers. When at last we returned to our home, the Messenger of Allah came to us while I was bargaining to sell a sheep belonging to one of my brothers. He prayed: `O Allah, bless his bargain for him.' ” `Abdullah then concluded: “I never thereafter bought or sold anything but that Allah blessed it for me.”
It is related on the authority of as‑Sadiq that the Apostle of Allah said to Fatimah: “Go and mourn your cousin. Do not cry, `O my bereavement!' Anything else you say about him (that is, enumerating his virtues), would be speaking the truth, for many are his virtues.” Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related on the authority of `Urwah ibn az‑Zubayr that: “When the men of the Battle of Mu'tah returned, the Apostle of Allah met them with the other Muslims, who then began to throw dust upon them saying: `You retreaters! You have indeed taken to flight in the way of Allah! ' The Messenger of Allah retorted: `No, they are not retreaters. Rather, they are brave attackers, Allah willing.' ”
The Battle of Mu'tah was followed in Ramadan of the same year (8 AH. = December, 629) by the Conquest of Mecca. When the Messenger of Allah agreed on the truce of Hudaybiyyah, the Khuza'ah tribe entered into a pact of alliance with the Prophet, and the Kinanah tribe established a similar pact with the Quraysh.
After two years had elapsed, a man of the Kinanah sat relating disparaging tales about the Messenger of Allah. A man of Khuza'ah objected saying: “Do not say such things.” The man asked: “What is it to you?” He threatened, “If you repeat this, I will revoke our covenant.” As the man dared him and repeated his words, the man of Khuza'ah struck him with his hand. Both men cried out to their people for support. The men of Kinanah were more numerous, so they beat the others back until they forced them into the Sacred Mosque, even killing some of them. The people of Quraysh aided the men of Kinanah with arms and horses.
`Amr ibn Salim (a man of the Khuza'ah tribe) rode to the Messenger of Allah with the news and recited the following verses:
No matter, but I have come to remind Muhammad, of the old alliance between him and us.
The people of Quraysh have broken their promise to you;
they have indeed revoked your binding covenant,
They killed us while we were kneeling and prostrate at prayer!
The Messenger of Allah answered: “You have said enough O `Amr ! ” He then immediately arose and, entering the chamber of his wife Maymunah, ordered water to be brought to him. He began to wash himself and repeat, “No, may I never be given support if I do not come to the aid of the people of Ka'b (i.e., the Khuza'ah).” Thus the Apostle of Allah resolved on going to Mecca. He prayed: “O Allah, remove all spies of the Quraysh, so that we might surprise them in their own home.”
A man called Hatib ibn Abi Balta'ah wrote a letter to the people of Quraysh which he sent with Sarah, a servant of Abu Lahab, telling them that the Messenger of Allah would come to punish them on such and such a day. The woman set out, avoiding the main road, and going instead to the left across the Harrah district. But Gabriel came down and told the Prophet. He called 'Ali and az‑Zubayr and said to them: “Go overtake her and seize the letter from her!” 'Ali and az‑Zubayr set out, not stopping to speak to anyone until they reached Dhu 'l-Hulayfah (a place outside Medina on the way to Mecca).
The Prophet had previously set guards over Medina, headed by al‑Harithah ibn an‑Nu'man. 'Ali and az‑Zubayr asked the guards if they had seen the woman, but they said that they had seen no one. They then met a woodcutter and asked him; he said, “I saw a dark woman who turned down towards al‑Harrah.” Thus they caught her; 'Ali took the letter from her and took her back to the Messenger of Allah.
The Prophet called Hatib and said to him: “See what you have done! ” The man answered: “By Allah, I have faith in Allah and His Apostle. I have never doubted, but I am a man who has close relatives and family in Mecca. I therefore wished to do the people of Quraysh a good turn in order that they in turn act kindly towards my family.” `Umar ibn al‑Khattab said: “Let me cut off his head, O Apostle of Allah; for‑by Allah, he has acted hypocritically!” The Prophet replied: “He is of the people of Badr, whom Allah has looked kindly on and forgiven.”
He then commanded: “Expel him from the Mosque!” As men began to push him cut, he turned and looked at the Messenger of Allah, hoping that he would show mercy towards him. The Prophet at last ordered that he be brought back, and said to him: “I have pardoned your crime. Seek forgiveness of your Lord, therefore, and do not commit such an act again.” Allah then sent down:
Do you who have faith, do not take my enemies and your enemies as allies . . ., and so on to the middle of the surah (see Qur'an 60:1 et seq.).
Aban related on the authority of Abu `Abdillah (as-Sadiq) that when Abu Sufyan learnt of what the people of Quraysh had done to those of Khuza'ah while he was in Syria, he went to the Messenger of Allah and said to him: “O Muhammad, stop the blood of your people from being shed! Allow that pacts of protection (jiwar) be established among the people of Quraysh, and give us longer respite! ” The Prophet replied: “But you have committed treachery, O Abu Sufyan.” “No”, Abu Sufyan answered. The Prophet then declared: “We remain committed as we have been.” Abu Sufyan met Abu Bakr soon after he left the Prophet. He requested him to grant protection to the people of Quraysh. Abu Bakr objected: “Alas for you, can anyone grant protection against the Messenger of Allah? ”
Abu Sufyan then met `Umar and repeated to him the same request. He then went to Umm Habibah, wife of the Prophet, and went to sit on a mattress she had on the floor. Umm Habibah, however, quickly folded the mattress and took it away. Abu Sufyan asked: “O daughter, would you consider me unworthy to sit on this mattress?” “Yes”, she retorted, “this belongs to the Messenger of Allah. You ought not to sit on it while you are an abominable Associator! ” He then went to Fatimah and addressed her saying: “O daughter of the Apostle of Allah and master of the Arabs, would you offer protection to the people of Quraysh and extend our period of truce, and thus be the noblest lady among the people? ”
She answered: “My pact of protection is that of the Apostle of Allah.” He begged again: “Would you order your two sons to offer protection to the people?” “By Allah”, she said: “my sons would not know to whom of the people of Quraysh they should offer protection.” Abu Sufyan then met 'Ali and said to him: “You are the closest in kinship to me. Matters have become difficult for me; find a way out for me.” `Ali answered: “You are the chief elder of Quraysh. Stand, therefore, at the door of the mosque and establish pacts of protection among the men of Quraysh. Then ride out and go to your people.” “Do you consider this to be of benefit to me?” Abu Sufyan asked. “I do not know”, 'Ali answered. Abu Sufyan did as `Ali suggested and cried out: “O people, I hereby declare a covenant of protection (jiwar) among the people of Quraysh ! ”
Abu Sufyan then mounted his camel and went to his people. They asked: “What news have you?” He replied: “I went to Muhammad and spoke to him, but by Allah, he gave no answer to me. I then went to Ibn Abi Quhafah (Abu Bakr), but I found no good with him. I likewise went to `Umar ibn al‑Khattab, but to no avail. I went to Fatimah, but she did not answer me. I finally met `Ali, and he advised me to declare a covenant of protection among the people, and they accepted. The men of Quraysh asked: “Did Muhammad allow it?” “No”, he answered. “Alas for you”, they retorted, “the man (that is, `Ali) is playing tricks on you, while you declare covenants of protection among the people of Quraysh! ”
The Messenger of Allah set out for Mecca on Friday after the mid‑afternoon prayers on the second of Ramadan (9/630), leaving Abu Lubabah ibn `Abdi 'l-Mundhir as his representative in Medina. He then summoned the chief of every tribe and asked him to call his people to arms. It is reported on the authority of (the fifth Imam) al-Baqir that the Messenger of Allah set out for the Battle of Conquest observing the fast along with the people until they reached a place called Kura'u'l-Ghamim, where he broke his fast. The people also broke their fast except a few who were then called `the rebellious ones'. He journeyed on until he reached a place called Marru'z‑Zahran. He was accompanied by around ten thousand men and four hundred horsemen, but the people of Quraysh did not learn of his coming.
On that night Abu Sufyan, Hakim ibn Hizam and Badil ibn Warqa' set out wondering if they would hear any news. al‑`Abbas ibn `Abdi 'l-Muttalib had previously gone out to meet the Messenger of Allah, accompanied by Abu Sufyan ibn al‑Harith and `Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyah. He met him at a spot called Niqu'l-`Iqab. The Messenger of Allah was sitting under a canopy guarded by Ziyad ibn Usayd. Ziyad met them and said: “As for you O Abu 'l-Fadl, you may go to the canopy. But as for the two of you, you must go away.” al‑`Abbas went to the Messenger of Allah and greeted him with the salutation of peace, and said: “May my father and mother be a ransom for you, here is your cousin (that is, Abu Sufyan) and your maternal aunt's son (that is, `Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyah) coming to you repentant.” He answered, “I have no need of them. My cousin has violated my family's honour. As for the son of my aunt, he is the one who says in Mecca:
`We shall not believe you until you cause a cool spring to gush forth for us from the earth”' (Qur'an 17:90) .
When al‑`Abbas left, Umm Salamah (the Prophet's wife) pleaded with him saying: “May my father and mother be a ransom for you, here is your cousin coming to you repentant! Let him not be the most wretched of men through you. Here also is the brother of your aunt's son, and brother to your son‑in‑law; let him not be wretched through you! ” Abu Sufyan ibn al‑Harith then called out to the Prophet:
“O Apostle of Allah, say to us what Allah's righteous servant (Joseph) said to his brothers: `There is no blame on you”' (Qur'an 12:92 ) .
The Prophet then called both Abu Sufyan and `Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyah and accepted their repentance.
al‑`Abbas commented: “If the Messenger of Allah had entered Mecca as a conqueror, it would have been the destruction of Quraysh to the end of time.” He continued: “Thus I mounted the Messenger of Allah's white mule and went out of the city looking for a woodcutter or shepherd that I might send to the people of Quraysh and convey my advice that they ride to the Apostle of Allah and beg for a promise of security (aman). On the way I met Abu Sufyan, Badil ibn Warqa” and Hakim ibn Hizam, just as Abu Sufyan was asking Badil, `What are these fires?' He answered, `They must belong to the tribe of Khuza'ah.' Abu Sufyan answered, `The Khuza'ah are too few for these to be their fires. They must rather belong to either the Taym or Rabi'ah tribe.' ”
al‑`Abbas went on: “I recognized Abu Sufyan's voice, and called out, `Is that Abu Hanzalah?' He answered: `Here I am; who are you?' I answered, `I am al ‑`Abbas.' Abu Sufyan asked, `To whom do these fires belong?' `This is the Messenger of Allah with ten thousand of the Muslims', I replied. He asked further, `What is to be done?' I said, `You must ride behind me on this mule and come with me that I may beg the Messenger of Allah for a promise of security for you.' I thus put him behind me and rode with him (to the Prophet). Whenever we passed by an assembly of men, they rushed at him. But as they saw me, they turned back saying, `This is the uncle of the Apostle of Allah; let him go.' When I reached `Umar's door, he recognized Abu Sufyan and exclaimed, `Here is the enemy of Allah; praise be to Allah Who brought you into my hands!' The mule, however, galloped on until we all gathered at the entrance to the canopy.
`Umar went in and said (to the Prophet), `Here is Abu Sufyan; Allah has brought him into your hands without him having any covenant or agreement of protection. Let me, therefore, strike off his head.' ”
Al‑`Abbas continued his narrative. “I sat at the feet of the Apostle of Allah and begged him, saying: `Here is Abu Sufyan whom I have taken into my protection.' He answered, `Bring him in.' Abu Sufyan stood before him, and the Prophet asked, `O Abu Sufyan, is it not time for you to bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that I am the Apostle of Allah?' Abu Sufyan exclaimed, `May my father and mother be a ransom for you! How noble and kind to your next of kin you are, and how clement! By Allah, had there been any other god beside Him, he would have assisted on the days of Uhud and Badr. But as for the fact that you are the Messenger of Allah, I still have some doubt in my heart concerning it.' ”
Al‑`Abbas warned him saying: “He will strike off your head right now unless you bear witness that he is the Apostle of Allah! ” Abu Sufyan finally exclaimed: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that you are indeed the Apostle of Allah.” He barely mumbled it with his lips. Abu Sufyan asked al ‑`Abbas, “What shall we do with al‑Lat and al‑`Uzza (the two goddesses of Mecca)?” “Defecate on them!” `Umar retorted: Abu Sufyan said: “Fie on you, how lewd you are! What makes you intervene in a conversation between me and my cousin?” The Messenger of Allah asked Abu Sufyan, “With whom will you spend the night?” “With Abu 'l-Fadl”, he replied. The Prophet said: “Take him, O Abu 'l-Fadl, and let him sleep at your home tonight, and bring him back to me in the morning.”
Next morning, Abu Sufyan heard Bilal raising the call to prayer. He asked: “Who is that calling out, O Abu 'lFadl?” al‑`Abbas answered: “He is the mu'adhdhin of the Messenger of Allah. Rise, therefore, perform your ablutions and offer your prayers.” “How shall I perform my ablutions?” Abu Sufyan enquired. al‑`Abbas then taught him how.
It is reported that Abu Sufyan looked at the Prophet performing his ablutions, while the Muslims placed their hands beneath his head so that not one drop fell on a man but that he rubbed his face with it. He exclaimed in astonishment: “O Abu 'l-Fadl, by Allah, I have never seen the like of this day in the courts of Kisra (the Emperor of Persia) or Qaysar (the Emperor of Byzantium)! ” After Abu Sufyan had performed his prayers, al‑`Abbas took him to the Messenger of Allah. Abu Sufyan addressed him, saying: “O Apostle of Allah, I wish that you would permit me to warn your people (that is, the Quraysh of Mecca) and invite them to the Messenger of Allah.” He was granted permission.
Abu Sufyan asked al‑`Abbas, “What shall I say to them? Advise me of a way in which they would be pleased.” The Prophet answered: “Say to them, `Anyone who says there is no god but Allah alone, having no associate, and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, and also restrains his hand (that is, from fighting against the Muslims), shall be granted security. Anyone who lays down his arms and sits by the Ka'bah shall have safety.' ” al‑`Abbas said: “O Apostle of Allah, Abu Sufyan is a man who loves boasting. Would you, then, grant him a special favour?” The Prophet then added: “Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan shall be safe.” Abu Sufyan enquired, again with astonishment, “Do you mean my house?” “Yes, your house”, the Prophet answered. He went on: “Anyone who remains in his home and shuts his door, shall be safe.”
When Abu Sufyan left, al‑`Abbas said: “O Apostle of Allah, Abu Sufyan is a man who behaves perfidiously, and he has observed the disunity prevailing among the Muslims. The Prophet replied: “Pursue him and keep him in the narrow passes of the valley until Allah's legions overtake him.”
It is reported that al‑'Abbas pursued Abu Sufyan and called out to him: “O Abu Hanzalah.” Abu Sufyan called back: “Is it treachery that you intend against me, O sons of Hashim? ” “Treachery is not our custom, as you shall know”, al‑'Abbas replied, “but stay here till the morning so that you might see the legions of Allah.” al‑'Abbas reported that Khalid ibn al‑Walid passed first, and Abu Sufyan said: “This is the Messenger of Allah.” “No”, answered al‑`Abbas, “this is Khalid ibn al‑Walid coming with the first ranks.” Then az‑Zubayr passed by leading the tribes of Juhaynah and Ashja`.
Abu Sufyan exclaimed: “O `Abbas, this is Muhammad! ” “No”, he answered, “this is az‑Zubayr.” Thus legions followed past him one after the other until the Messenger of Allah came leading the legion of the Ansar. Then Sa'd ibn `Ubadah came up to Abu Sufyan, bearing in his hand the standard of the Messenger of Allah, and said: “O Abu Hanzalah, today is the day of war! Today shall womenfolk be taken captive! O men of the Aws and Khazraj, today is the day of your revenge for the day of the mountain (that is, for those who were killed in the Battle of Uhud).”
When Abu Sufyan heard these words from Sa'd, he left al‑'Abbas and made his way through the crowds and under the spears of the men, until he stood by the Messenger of Allah. He took hold of his stirrup and kissed it. He then addressed him saying: “May my father and mother be a ransom for you; do you hear what Sa'd is saying? ” He then repeated Sa`d's words to the Prophet. The Prophet answered: “Nothing of what Sa'd has said will happen.” He then turned to 'Ali and said: “Go to Sa'd and take the banner from him and carry it gently into Mecca.” 'Ali carried it thither as the Prophet had commanded.
It is reported that on that day Hakim ibn Hizam, Badil ibn Warqa' and Jubayr ibn Mut`im accepted Islam. Abu Sufyan ran hastily to Mecca. Even though a thick cloud of dust appeared over the mountains, the people of Quraysh knew nothing of what was taking place: Abu Sufyan came running up the valley. The men of Quraysh met him and asked the reason for his excitement, and the meaning of the dust which they saw. He said: “Here comes Muhammad with the multitudes! ” He then cried out: “O people of Ghalib, run to your houses! Whoever enters my home, he shall be safe! ” When Hind learnt of what was happening, she began to expel the people (from Abu Sufyan's home).
She then cried out: “Kill the wicked old man (meaning the Prophet). May Allah curse such a leader, coming at the head of such a people! ” Abu Sufyan retorted: “Hold your peace, woe to you! I saw the men of horns (that is, the Byzantines, descendants of Alexander the Great who was known as Dhu 'l-Qarnayn, the man with the two horns) ‑ I saw the noble sons of Persia, the King of Kindah (an important Arab tribe) and the young men of Himyar (a large tribe of Yemen) ‑ I saw them all accepting Islam at the end of the day (of battle). Hold your peace; alas for you, Truth has come, and calamity is near! ”
The Messenger of Allah had previously bound the Muslims with a promise that they would kill in Mecca only those who might fight against them, except a few men who used to insult the Prophet ‑ Miqyas ibn Subabah, `Abdullah ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Sarh, `Abdullah ibn Khatal and two singing girls who used to sing songs denigrating the Messenger of Allah. He commanded the Muslims, saying: “Slay them, even if you find them holding on to the curtains of the Ka'bah.” `Abdullah ibn Khatal was indeed found holding on to the curtains of the Ka'bah. Said ibn Hurayth and `Ammar ibn Yasir ran to him, but Said overtook `Ammar and slew him. Miqyas ibn Subabah was killed in the market place.
'Ali killed one of the two singing girls, but the other escaped. 'Ali also killed al‑Huwayrith ibn Naqidh ibn Ka'b. He learnt that Umm Hani daughter of Abu Talib had given shelter to some men of the Makhzum tribe, among whom were al‑Harith ibn Hisham and Qays ibn as‑Sa'ib. 'Ali went to her house heavily clad with iron armor. He cried out: “Bring forth the men you have sheltered!” The men began to urinate on themselves in fear of him. Umm Hani came out to him, not knowing who he was, and said: “O servant of Allah, I am Umm Hani, cousin of the Messenger of Allah and sister of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib ! Go away from my house.” 'Ali, however, insisted: “Bring them out!” She answered: “By Allah, I shall accuse you before the Apostle of Allah! ” But as he took the helmet off his head, she recognized him. She thus ran and embraced him, saying: “May I be a ransom for you! I have sworn by Allah that I would accuse you before the Apostle of Allah.” “Go and fulfill your oath”, 'Ali replied, “there he is at the head of the valley.”
Umm Hani related: “I came to the Messenger of Allah as he was under a canopy bathing, while Fatimah stood sheltering him. When the Messenger of Allah heard my words, he exclaimed: `Welcome to you, O Umm Hani!' I replied, `May my father and mother be a ransom for you, I have endured much from 'Ali today.' He answered: `I shall grant protection (jiwar) to anyone you have taken into your protection.' Fatimah added: `So you come to accuse `Ali in that he frightened the enemies of Allah and His Apostle.' I said to the Prophet: `Bear with me, may I be a ransom for you.' The Messenger of Allah replied: `May Allah accept well his effort! As for me, I shall grant protection to anyone in Umm Hani's protection because of her relationship to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib.' ”
Aban reported on the authority of (the sixth Imam) Abu `Abdillah that when Mecca was conquered, the Apostle of Allah asked: “Who has the key (of the Ka'bah)?” They answered: “It is with Umm Shaybah.” He thus called Shaybah and said to him: “Go to your mother and ask her to send the key.” She said to her son: “Tell him, `You have killed our fighters; do you now wish to seize our honour!' ” Shaybah threatened: “You either send the key, or I shall kill you!” She finally placed it in the hand of the youth, who took it to the Prophet. The Prophet then called `Umar and said: “This is the fulfilment of my dream which I had.” He then rose and opened (the Ka'bah) with the key and hung a curtain over its door. From that day on, it has become custom to cover it. The Prophet then called the youth, spread his garment, placed the key in it and said: “Take it back to your mother.”
It is reported that the valiant men of Quraysh entered the Ka'bah thinking that they would not be spared the sword. The Messenger of Allah came to the House, and taking hold of the two posts of the door, exclaimed: “There is no god but Allah; He fulfilled His promise, granted His servant victory, and He alone defeated the Confederates (al‑Ahzab).” Then, addressing the people of Quraysh, he asked: “What do you think, and what have you now to say?” Suhayl ibn `Amr answered: “We think well and say good: `A noble brother and a cousin.' ” The Prophet replied: “I say to you what Joseph said to his brothers,
`There is no blame on you today; may Allah forgive you, for He is most merciful' (12:92) .
Let every wealth (wrongfully seized), every blood (wrongfully shed), and every revenge to be exacted belonging to the days of jahiliyyah be trampled under my foot, except the guardianship of the Ka'bah and the bearing of water at the time of the pilgrimage (siqayatu 'l‑hajj); they shall be returned to their people.
Behold, the sanctity of Mecca (that is, against any kind of violence), was made inviolable by Allah. It was never allowed to be violated by anyone before me, nor was it made violable for me except for one hour of one day. It shall henceforth remain inviolable until the coming of the Hour. Its herbs shall not be cut off, nor shall its trees be cut down. Its animals shall not be hunted, nor will any valuable (thing) be picked up except by one wishing to identify it and its owner.”
He then said: “Bad hosts indeed you were to the Prophet! You have rejected, expelled, forcefully driven out and beaten (the Muslims). Yet, you were not satisfied until you came to me to fight against me in my own home. No matter ‑ go, for you are free! ” The people went out as though they had been raised up from the tomb, and they all entered into Islam.
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah entered Mecca without being in the state of consecration (ihram). This is because the Muslims had entered Mecca with their arms. He likewise entered the House neither performing the greater or lesser pilgrimage. He went in at the mid‑afternoon hour, and ordered Bilal to go up to the roof of the Ka'bah and raise the call to prayer. `Ikrimah (ibn Abi Jahl) exclaimed: “By Allah, I hate to hear the voice of Ibn Rabah (that is, Bilal) braying on the roof of the Ka'bah.” Khalid ibn Usayd said: “Praise be to Allah Who favored Abu `Attab today in not letting him see Ibn Rabah standing on the Ka'bah.” Suhayl ibn `Amr objected saying: “It is Allah's Ka'bah, and He sees all things. Had He willed otherwise, He would have altered (the situation).” It is reported that Suhayl was the most sober among the men of Quraysh.
Abu Sufyan said: “As for me, I shall say nothing. If I were to speak, by Allah, these walls would, I think, inform Muhammad of what I say! ” The Prophet did, in fact, send for them and tell them what they had said. `Attab confessed: “By Allah, we did say all that, 0 Apostle of Allah. We therefore beg Allah's forgiveness and repent to Him.” He thereafter accepted Islam and sincerely lived by it. The Messenger of Allah set him over Mecca as governor.
Mecca was conquered thirteen nights into Ramadan. Three Muslims were martyred. They were left alone at the lowest district of Mecca; they thus lost their way and were killed.
The Messenger of Allah then sent detachments of men all around Mecca calling people to Allah, but he did not command them to fight. He sent Ghalib ibn `Abdillah to the tribe of Mudlij; they said: “We are neither against you, nor are we with you.” The people said: “Attack them, O Apostle of Allah! ” He answered: “They have a magnanimous and prudent chief. Many a fighter of the Banu Mudlij shall be a martyr in the way of Allah.”
The Prophet sent `Amr ibn Umayyah ad‑Damri to the tribe of Banu 'l-Hudhayl to call them to Allah and His Apostle, but they vehemently refused his call. The people again said: “Attack them, O Apostle of Allah! ” He answered: “Their chief shall now come to you. He has become a Muslim. He shall say to them, `Become Muslims', and they will answer, `Yes, we shall.' ” Then the Prophet sent `Abdullah ibn Suhayl ibn `Amr to the tribe of Banu Muharib. They accepted Islam, and a group of them came back with him to the Messenger of Allah.
The Prophet also sent Khalid ibn al‑Walid to the tribe of Judhaymah ibn `Amir. During the time of jahiliyyah they had captured some women of the tribe of Banu'I‑Mughirah, and killed Khalid's paternal uncle. They thus received him in full armour saying: “O Khalid, we have not raised arms against Allah and against His Apostle, for we are Muslims. If the Apostle of Allah has sent you as an emissary, then there are our camels and sheep; go at them.” Khalid, however, insisted, “Lay down your arms.” They answered: “We fear that you will attack us because of a feud left over from the time of jahiliyyah.
Yet, Allah and His Apostle have declared such feuds dead.” He and the men who were with him then left them and encamped nearby. Still he attacked them with horses, slaying some and capturing others. He then ordered his men, “Let every one of you kill his captive.” Thus they killed the captives. The emissary of the tribe then went to the Messenger of Allah and told him what Khalid had done. On hearing this, the Prophet lifted his hands to the heaven and exclaimed: “O Allah, I dissociate myself from that which Khalid has done!” He wept, and called for 'Ali and said to him: “Go to them and look into their affair.” He also gave 'Ali a sackful of gold. 'Ali did what the Prophet commanded him to do, and pacified them.
The engagement of Hunayn took place in 8/ 630. The tribe of Hawazin gathered a large multitude of men against the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah was told that Safwan ibn Umayyah had a hundred suits of armour in his possession. He asked him for them, and Safwan enquired: “Would you seize them by force, O Muhammad?” “No”, he answered: “rather a loan guaranteed.” He thus agreed and gave them to him.
The Messenger of Allah left Mecca with two thousand fighters. He had with him as well an additional ten thousand men. One of his Companions observed: “If you are defeated today, it will not be for reasons of inadequate numbers.” The Messenger of Allah was troubled by this observation; thus Allah sent down:
On the day of Hunayn when you were pleased with your own large numbers . . . (Qur'an 9:25).
A man called Malik ibn `Awf an‑Nasri came with some men of the tribes of Qays and Thaqif. The Messenger of Allah sent `Abdullah ibn Abi Hadrad as a spy, and he heard Ibn `Awf saying: “O people of Hawazin, you are indeed the quickest to anger and most numerous among the Arabs. This man, moreover, has not yet met a people who would engage him in a true fight. When you meet him, break the tips of your swords in fighting; rush at him as one man!” Ibn Abi Hadrad then came to the Apostle of Allah and recounted all this to him. `Umar rejoined, “Do not listen, O Apostle of Allah, to what Ibn AN Hadrad is saying.” He answered: “O `Umar, you were gone astray, then Allah guided you. Ibn Abi Hadrad is a truthful man.”
As‑Sadiq related that it was Durayd ibn as‑Sammah who accompanied the men of Hawazin. Although Durayd was an old man, they brought him with them in order that they might benefit from his wise counsel.
When they reached Awtas (a place three days' journey from Mecca), the old man exclaimed: “A goodly place this is for horses to gallop. There is neither rough terrain nor a plain of quicksand. Why then do I hear the braying of camels and donkeys and the cries of infants?” He was told that Malik ibn `Awf had had men bring their wealth, womenfolk and children with them. He called for Malik, and when he came he said to him: “O Malik, you have become the chief of your people. This, moreover, is a day which will be important for many days to follow. Why do I then hear the braying of camels and donkeys, the cries of infants and the bleating of sheep? ” He answered: “I wish to have behind every man his family and wealth (so that he will be forced) to defend them.”
Durayd objected: “You fool, you will accomplish nothing if you do not place the power of Hawazin on the horses at the front. For would anything stand in the face of a retreating man? If you win, it will be only because men welded their swords and spears. But if you lose, you will have exposed your family and wealth.” Malik retorted: “You are an old man; you have lost your mind!” Durayd replied: “I may have become old, but you shall bring your people to humiliation because of the foolishness of your reason and of your views. Yet, I have not for a moment taken leave of my reason.” He then exclaimed: “It shall be a hard war. Would that I were a strong young man (i.e., at the time of Muhammad's proclamation of his Prophethood), so that I could run (in battle) with speed and agility.”
Jabir ibn `Abdillah al‑Ansari said: “Thus we continued our journey until we reached the valley of Hunayn; there we were overwhelmed by troops of men brandishing swords, spears and iron bars, waiting in ambush in the bends and narrows of the valley. As they saw us, they rushed at us as one man in their determination. People retreated quickly, so that no one even stopped to look at another. The Messenger of Allah stepped aside to the right, and nine of the sons of `Abdu'l-Muttalib surrounded his mule to defend him. Malik ibn `Awf ran out crying, `Show me Muhammad!' and rushed at the Messenger of Allah. He was tall and well‑built, but a rash person.
One of the Muslims met him in single combat, but Malik killed him.” It was reported that the man was Ayman the son of Umm Ayman (the Prophet's wet‑nurse). Malik then spurred his horse on, but it would not advance toward the Messenger of Allah. A man called Kaladah ibn al‑Hanbal, who was a step‑brother to Safwan ibn Umayyah (Safwan being still an Associator) cried out: “Magic has indeed been rendered ineffectual today! ” Safwan reproached him saying: “May Allah break your mouth; by Allah, I prefer that a man of Quraysh lord over me than a man of Hawazin ! ”
Muhammad ibn Ishaq reported that a man called Shaybah ibn `Uthman ibn Abi Talhah of the tribe of `Abdu'dDar, said: “I shall now take my revenge; today I shall kill Muhammad.” This was because his father had been killed in the Battle of Uhud. “Thus,” he continued, “I sought Muhammad to kill him, but something came over me so that my heart felt as though pressed down, and I was unable to endure it. I knew then that he was (divinely) protected.” It is further related on the authority of `Ikrimah that Shaybah said: “When I saw the Messenger of Allah on the day of Hunayn totally abandoned, I remembered my father and uncle and how `Ali and Hamzah killed them.
Thus I thought to myself, `I shall today take my revenge on Muhammad.' When, however, I came to attack him on his right, I saw al‑`Abbas ibn `Abdi 'l-Muttalib standing by him clad with a white suit of armour as though made of silver. He was brushing the dust off it. I thought, `He is his uncle; he would not abandon him.' Then I came at him from behind, and was about to cut him down with my sword. But a fiery wall of hot flame looking like a thunderbolt stood between me and him. I was afraid that it would consume me. I covered my eyes with my hand and ran away. The Messenger of Allah turned to me and called out, `O Shubayb, come close to me.' He then prayed, `O Allah, remove Satan from him.' I lifted my eyes toward him, and he was indeed dearer to me than my hearing and my sight. He then said to me, `O Shubayb, fight against the rejecters of faith!' ”
It is reported on the authority of Musa ibn `Uqbah that the Messenger of Allah stood up in the stirrups of his donkey and said: “O Allah, I beg of You to fulfil what You had promised me. O Allah, they should not gain victory over us! ” He then called his Companions and reproached them saying: “O you men who gave the oath of allegiance (bay`ah) on the day of Hudaybiyyah! O Allah, hasten to the aid of your Prophet!” It is also related that he cried out: “O supporters of the Messenger of Allah, O sons of the tribe of Khazraj!” He then commanded al‑`Abbas to call the people together, and the Prophet's Companions came to him running. It is reported that the Prophet exclaimed: “Now the fighting has become fierce! I am the Prophet without doubt, I am the son of Abdu'l-Muttalib!”
Salamah ibn al‑Akwa' reported that the Messenger of Allah then dismounted his mule, took a handful of dust and threw it at their faces saying: “May these faces be disgraced! ” There was not a creature of Allah among them but that his eyes were filled with dust. Thus they turned and quickly fled. The Muslims followed them and slew them. Allah, moreover, granted the Muslims their women, children, livestock and wealth. Malik ibn `Awf fled to the stronghold of at‑Ta'if with some of their notables. At that time, when they saw Allah's support and the great honour He bestowed on His religion, many of the people of Mecca became Muslims.
Aban reported on the authority of Abu `Abdillah (as-Sadiq) that the Messenger of Allah captured in the Battle of Hunayn four thousand head of cattle and twelve thousand she‑camels, in addition to unknown quantities of other spoils. The Messenger of Allah left the booty, both wealth and captives, in a place called al‑Ji'irranah (near Mecca). The Associators then split into two groups. The Bedouins and their followers went in the direction of Awtas. The tribe of Thaqif and their followers went to at‑Ta'if. The Messenger of Allah then sent 'Abu `Amir al‑Ash'ari to Awtas, where he fought until he fell in battle. His cousin Abu Musa al‑Ash'ari (the famous Companion) took up the banner and fought until Allah granted him victory.
In the month of Shawwal of the year 8/630, the Messenger of Allah led an army to at‑Ta'if, which he then besieged for about fifteen days. A man called Nafi` ibn Ghaylan ibn Mu'attab went out for battle with the Muslims with a number of horsemen of the tribe of Thaqif. 'Ali encountered him in the midst (batn) of Wajj (a valley in at‑Ta'if). 'Ali killed him, and the Associators fled defeated. Some men and a number of their relatives came down from the stronghold of at‑Ta'if to the Messenger of Allah; among them was Abu Bakrah, who was a slave to a man called al‑Harith ibn Kaladah al‑Munba'ith.
Abu Bakrah was called `al‑Mudtaji” (the man lying down), but the Apostle of Allah changed his name to `al‑Munba'ith' (the man who was raised up). Another man was Wardan, who was a slave of `Abdullah ibn Rabi `ah. They both accepted Islam. When the peace delegation from at‑Ta'if came to the Messenger of Allah, they too became Muslims and requested the Prophet to return the two slaves to them. “No”, the Prophet said, “they are Allah's freemen.”
Al‑Waqidi reported from his masters that the Messenger of Allah consulted with his Companions regarding the fortress of at‑Ta'if, and Salman the Persian suggested that he set up a mangonel against it. He thus ordered that one be made. It is reported that a man called Yazid ibn Zam'ah brought a mangonel and two battering engines. It is also reported that it was Khalid ibn Said who brought them. But the men of Thaqif threw hot iron bars at them which burnt one of the engines.
The Messenger of Allah ordered that their vineyards be cut down and burnt. Sufyan ibn `Abdillah ath-Thaqafi, however, called out to him and said: “Why do you wish to cut down and burn our properties? You either seize them if you prevail over us, or you should leave them for Allah and for the sake of our blood relationship.” The Apostle of Allah replied: “Rather, I leave them for Allah and for the sake of our blood relationship.” He thus spared them.
The Messenger of Allah sent 'Ali during the siege of at‑Ta'if with men and horses and ordered him to break any idol he found. He was confronted by a large crowd of the tribe of Ithath'am. A man of the group came forth for single combat, challenging `Ali with the demand, “Is there any one to engage me in single combat?” No one took up the challenge. Finally `Ali stood up to face him, but `Abu'l`As ibn ar‑Rabi ` (the husband of the Prophet's daughter) jumped up and asked `Ali: “Would you wish to be spared fighting him, O commander?” “No,” he answered, “but if I am killed, you shall assume the leadership of the people.” He then came forth to meet the man saying :
Duty is upon every chief,
(either) to nourish his spear (with blood) or have it broken (in battle).
He then struck the man and slew him. He went on his way until he broke all the idols he saw and then returned to the Messenger of Allah while he was still besieging at‑Ta'if. When he saw him, the Prophet cried out: “Allah is most great! ” He then took `Ali and conferred with him alone.
It is reported on the authority of Jabir ibn `Abdillah al-Ansari that when the Messenger of Allah took `Ali aside on the day of at‑Ta'if, `Umar ibn al‑Khattab came to him and said: “You confer with him alone and spend time alone with him instead of us!” The Prophet answered: “O `Umar, it is not I who chose him; rather Allah chose him.” `Umar turned away saying: “This is the same as when you told us on the day of Hudaybiyyah: `
You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaven (i.e., for consecration)' (Qur'an 48: 27) ;
yet we have not entered it. Rather, we were prevented from approaching it.”
The Prophet called him back and said: “I did not say that you would enter it that year.” When `Ali returned, the Apostle of Allah looked as though he was afraid (that 'Ali had returned defeated), and he stood up. A man called Said ibn `Ubayd exclaimed (slanderously): “Indeed, the quarter (to be conquered) still stands intact (i.e., 'Ali has returned without fulfilling his mission).” The Prophet retorted: “May you not be able to stand or have strength! ” Sa'id immediately fell and broke his leg.
Muhammad ibn Ishaq reported that the Messenger of Allah besieged the people of at‑.Ta'if for thirty some days. He then departed from them without raising among them the call to prayer (as sign of victory). In the following Ramadan, however, a delegation from them came to him, and they accepted Islam.
The Messenger of Allah then returned to al‑Ji'irranah, where he divided the booty which the Muslims had seized on the day of Hunayn. It was divided among `those whose hearts were reconciled' of the people of Quraysh, 2 and the rest of the Arabs; but nothing at all went to the Ansar. It is, reported, however, that the Prophet allotted a small share to the Ansar, but gave the largest portion to the Hypocrites.
Muhammad ibn Ishaq reported that the Prophet gave Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and his son Mu'awiyah a hundred camels each. He also gave a hundred camels each to Hakim ibn Hizam of the tribe of Asad ibn `Abdi'l-`Uzza ibn Qusayy, an Nadir ibn al‑Harith ibn Kaladah, al‑Harith ibn Hisham of the Banu Makhzum, Jubayr ibn Mut'im of the tribe of Banu Nawfal ibn `Abd Manaf, and Malik ibn `Awf an‑Nasri. These men were thus known as `the people of the one hundred.' It is also reported that he gave `Alqamah ibn `Ulathah, al-Aqra` ibn Habis and `Uyaynah ibn Hisn a hundred camels each. But he gave a man called al‑`Abbas ibn Mirdas only four, which he disdained with manifest displeasure, reciting the following verse:
Would you then make my share of the booty like that of slaves,
Even less than those of `Uyaynah and al‑Aqra `!Even less than those of `Uyaynah and al‑Aqra `!
Yet neither Hisn nor HabisYet neither Hisn nor Habis
Ever excelled Mirdas in the assembly,
Nor was I ever below any man of their status;
Yet whomever you debase today will never be raised up.
In battle I was indeed a man of courage;
Still I was given nothing, nor was I protected.
Hearing of this, the Apostle of Allah said to him: “Are you the man who said, `Would you then make my share of the booty even less than that of the slaves al‑Aqra` and `Uyaynah?' ” Abu Bakr observed: “May my father and mother be a ransom for you, you are not a poet!” (that is, the Prophet broke the rhyme). The Messenger of Allah asked: “How did he recite?” Abu Bakr then recited al`Abbas's verses to him. Then addressing 'Ali, the Prophet ordered, “Go and cut off al‑`Abbas's tongue!”
Al‑`Abbas, relating the incident, said: “This command was, by Allah, for me harder to bear even than the day of Khath'am. 'Ali took me by the hand and led me away. I said, `O 'Ali, will you cut off my tongue?' `I shall do with you as I was commanded', he answered. Thus we went until he brought me into the stables. He then said to me, `Take for yourself, excluding the four you have already received, the remainder of a hundred.' I said: `May my father and mother be a ransom for you; how generous, clement, noble and endowed with great knowledge are you (the Prophet and his family)!' He said to me, `The Messenger of Allah gave you only four camels, thus counting you among the Immigrants. If you wish, take them, or else take the one hundred. You would then be one of the people of the one hundred.'. I replied, `O 'Ali, is this what you advise me?' He answered: `I enjoin you to take what he has given you and be contented.' `I will indeed do so', said I”
It is reported that a group of the Ansar were angered by what the Prophet did. Vile words issued from their mouths, so that one of them said: “The man has favored his own family and cousins, yet we are the people who have endured every hardship.” When the Messenger of Allah learnt of what the Ansar were thinking, he ordered them all to assemble, without anyone joining them. He came to them as though in great rage, with 'Ali following behind, and sat in their midst.
He began to reproach them saying: “Did I not come to you while you were on the brink of a pit of fire, and Allah delivered you from it through me?” “Yes”, they answered, “to Allah and His Apostle belong all the favour and magnanimity toward us.” He went on: “Did I not come to you while you were enemies, and He reconciled your hearts?” “Yes indeed,” they replied. He said: “Did I not come to you while you were few in number, and Allah increased you through me?”3
He thus reproached them as Allah had wished; then he fell silent. After a while, he asked, “Will you not answer me?” “Yes”, they said, “we shall answer you, O Apostle of Allah. May our fathers and mothers be a ransom for you, to you belong all magnanimity, generosity and favour toward us.”
The Prophet answered: “No, rather if you so wish you could say, `You came to us rejected and driven out by your people, yet we sheltered you and believed you. You came to us frightened, yet we gave you security.' ”
They raised their voices to him entreatingly, and their chiefs rose and kissed his hands and feet and knees. They exclaimed: “We are pleased with Allah and His Apostle. This is our wealth and property; divide them among your people, if you so wish!” He replied: “O people of the Ansar, are you displeased because I have divided some wealth unevenly in order that I may reconcile some men, and yet I left you to your faith? Are you not happy that others return with sheep and cattle, when you and the Messenger of Allah return with your portion?” He then declared: “The Ansar are my trusted people and keepers of my secrets! If other people would traverse an easy valley, and the Ansar choose a hard terrain, I would walk with the Ansar. O Allah, forgive the Ansar, their children and the children of their children!”
It is reported that among the women who were captured was the Prophet's sister (in nursing), the daughter of Halimah. She stood before him and exclaimed: “O Muhammad, your sister is a captive! ” The Messenger of Allah took off his outer garment and spread it for her to sit on. He then bent down and began to console her. She used to carry him in her arms while her mother nursed him.
A delegation met the Messenger of Allah in al‑Ji'irranah where they accepted Islam. They said: “O Apostle of Allah, we are a people of well‑known lineage, and we are a large tribe. You know well what tribulations we have endured. Bestow upon us some favour, therefore; may Allah bestow His favour upon you! ” Their spokesman, Zuhayr ibn Sard, then stood up and said: “O Apostle of Allah, had we been so kind to al‑Harith ibn Abi Shimr and an‑Nu'man ibn al‑Mundhir, and if they had vanquished us as you had, he (an‑Nu'man) would have pitied us and bestowed his bounty upon us. You are the best of those who care for others. You know that among the captives are your maternal aunts, your nurses and the daughters of your nurses. We do not ask you for any wealth, but we do ask you for them.” The Messenger of Allah had, however, already divided them among the people. But when his sister spoke to him, he said: “As for my share as well as the shares of the sons of `Abdu'l Muttalib, they are yours. As for those whom the Muslims took, you may use me in interceding for them.”
After they had offered the noon prayers, the Prophet's nursing sister rose and spoke, and the people spoke also. Everyone gave her their women captives, except al‑Aqra' ibn Habis and `Uyaynah ibn Hisn. They refused saying: “O Apostle of Allah, these people have captured some of our women, and we too have captured some of their women.” The Messenger of Allah cast lots for them and prayed, “O Allah, let their lot be lost.”
Thus one of them won a servant of the clan of `Aqil and the other a servant of the clan of Numayr. When they saw this, they gave what they had withheld (in exchange for what they had won). It is reported that had the women not fallen into the shares of other people, he would have given them all to her, as he did with those who did not fall into anyone's share. But because they were included in the shares of the booty of the people, he did not wish to take them back except with their consent.
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “Anyone of you who gives up his rightful booty shall have six shares from the first booty we seize. Return, therefore, to the people their women and children.” His sister, likewise, spoke to him on behalf of Malik ibn `Awf, and he said: “If he comes to me, he shall have my pledge of security.” When Malik came to him, he fulfilled his promise and gave him a hundred camels.
It is reported by az‑Zuhri on the authority of Abu Said al‑Khudri who said: “As we were sitting around the Messenger of Allah while he was dividing the booty, a man of the tribe of Tamim called Dhu 'I‑Khuwaysirah came to him and said: `O Apostle of Allah, divide with justice!' He answered: `Alas for you, who shall act justly if I do not act justly? For I will fail and lose if I do not act justly.' `Umar ibn al‑Khattab said: `O Apostle of Allah, give me permission that I may cut off his head!' The Messenger of Allah replied: `Let him go, people; he shall have certain Companions beside whose prayers anyone of you would look at his prayers with disdain, and would disdain his fasting beside their fasting.
However, they will recite the Qur'an, but it will not penetrate further than their throats. They shall as easily slip out of Islam as would an arrow from its bow. It is as though a man would then look at the shafts (of his arrows), but find nothing. He would then look at the quivers of his arrows, but would find nothing. He would also look at his arrows before being sharpened, but would also find nothing. Finally, he would look at the tips of his arrows, but would find nothing there. Yet, his arrow would penetrate faster than the flow of excrement and blood. Their sign shall be a black man whose arm shall be like a woman's breast, or like a piece of flesh as it shakes up and down. They shall rise against the best group among men.”4
Abu Said said: “I bear witness that I heard this from the Apostle of Allah. I also testify that `Ali ibn Abi Talib fought against them while I was with him. The man described by the Prophet was brought, and I looked at him. I found him to be exactly as the Messenger of Allah had described.”5
Then the Messenger of Allah rode away and the people followed him demanding: “O Apostle of Allah, give us our share of the booty! ” They thus continued until they brought him to the foot of a tree. He then took off his garment and said: “O people, give me back my garment! For by Him in Whose hand is my soul, had I possessed the number of all the trees of the earth in cattle, I would have divided them among you. You would have never found me miserly, or a coward.”
He then went to a camel and took a hair from its hump, which he held between his fingers and said: “O people, by Allah, I do not possess of your booty even as much as this hair, except the fifth, and the fifth shall be returned to you. Give over then even the needle and thread, for hiding things is a shame for those who are guilty of it, an offence whose punishment shall be the Fire on the Day of Resurrection.”
A man came to the Prophet with a ball of hair threads. He said: “O Apostle of Allah, I took this to sew the saddle of my camel.” The Messenger of Allah answered: “As for my share of it, it is yours.” The man said: “If the matter is so grave, I have no need of it.” He then threw it down from his hand.
The Messenger of Allah left al‑Ji'irranah in Dhu'lQi'dah for Mecca, where he performed the lesser pilgrimage, after which he left for Medina. He left as his representative in Mecca Mu'adh ibn Jabal.
Muhammad ibn Ishaq reported that the Prophet left as his representative `Attab ibn Usayd, but that he left Mu'adh with him to instruct the people in the principles of the Faith and to teach them the Qur'an. `Attab ibn Usayd led the people in that year, which was the eighth year of the Hijrah, in the rites of the pilgrimage.
The Prophet remained in Medina from the month of Dhu 'l-Hijjah to Rajab (that is, the last month of year 8 to the seventh month of the following year).
In Rajab, the Prophet sent letters and emissaries to the Arab tribes which had entered into Islam in order to invite them to the jihad. This was the Battle of Tabuk, which the Prophet led against the Byzantines and their Arab clients. He wrote to the tribes of Tamim, Ghatafan and Tayy. He also sent a message to `Attab ibn Usayd, his representative in Mecca, to make ready for battle against the Byzantines.
When all was ready for the journey, the Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon wherein he first praised Allah with fitting praise, then invited the people to help one another and assist the weak among them and to spend of their wealth in Allah's cause. The first man to give was Uthman ibn `Affan (the third caliph). He brought vessels filled with silver, which he poured in the lap of the Prophet. He also provisioned an army of poor people.
He was thus known as, `he who provisioned the army of hardship' (jayshu'l-`usrah). al‑`Abbas also came to the Messenger of Allah and gave generously, donating provisions for the fighters. The Ansar hastened to do likewise. Other Companions also gave handsome donations: `Abdu'r‑Rahman ibn `Awf, az‑Zubayr and Talhah. Some of the Hypocrites also gave of their wealth, but only for a show of hypocrisy. Allah sent down concerning this certain verses of the Qur'an.6
The Messenger of Allah encamped at Thaniyyatu'l Wada' with those who followed him of the Immigrants, the Arab tribes, the tribe of Kinanah, the people of Tihamah and Muzaynah, Juhaynah, Tayy and Tamim. He set `Ali as his representative over Medina, saying to him: “It is necessary that either you or I should stay in Medina.” He entrusted the banner of the Immigrants to az‑Zubayr and placed Talhah ibn `Ubaydillah at the head of the right flank, and `Abdu'rRahman ibn `Awf at the head of the left one. Then he set out until he reached a place called al‑Jurf. There `Abdullah ibn Ubayy returned (to Medina) without the Prophet's permission. The Apostle of Allah said: “Allah is my sufficient Helper.
It is He Who strengthened him (that is, the Prophet) with His support and with the people of faith, and reconciled their hearts. ” (Qur'an 8:63)
At al‑Jurf 'Ali hastened to the Prophet and, taking hold of his stirrup, complained saying: “O Apostle of Allah, the people of Quraysh are claiming that you have left me behind because you find me bothersome!” He replied: “Communities (of faith) have always caused their prophets much hurt! Are you not content to be in the same station to me as was Aaron to Moses?” “Yes, I accept”, 'Ali answered; he then returned to Medina.
The Messenger of Allah arrived at Tabuk in Sha'ban, on Tuesday, where he remained the rest of the month and a few days of Ramadan. While in Tabuk, a man called Yuhannah ibn Ru'bah, the Governor of Aylah (Ilat), came to him. Yuhannah agreed to give the Apostle of Allah the jizyah and thus he wrote a truce agreement for him. The letter is still with them (that is, the Christians of the city). The Prophet likewise wrote an agreement of security for the people of al‑Jarba' and Adhruh (two towns in Syria).
Also while in Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah sent Abu `Ubaydah ibn al‑Jarrah with a man called Zinba` ibn Rawh al‑Judhami against a group of the tribe of Judham. Abu `Ubaydah was able to seize much wealth and women captives. The Prophet also sent Sa'd ibn `Ubadah against some people of the tribe of Sulaym and others of the tribe of Baliyy. But as they approached, the people fled.
The Prophet then sent Khalid ibn al‑Walid to Ukaydir, a chieftain of a place called Dumatu'l-Jandal. He predicted to Khalid: “Allah will deliver him into your hand by means of the chasing of a cow.” As Khalid and his Companions were spending a clear night near Ukaydir's fortress and while he sat within drinking wine with two of his wives, a cow came and vehemently began to butt the door. He rode after it with Hassan his brother and the men who owned the cow. Khalid and his Companions sat in ambush for him. Thus they captured him while he was chasing a cow. They killed Hassan his brother, who was wearing a garment woven with gold threads.
The other men escaped and ran into the fortress and closed its gate. Khalid brought Ukaydir to the gate and ordered the men to open for him, but they refused. Ukaydir then asked Khalid to let him go and open the gate. He sent a man to guard him, and Ukaydir opened the fortress for Khalid and his Companions. Ukaydir gave him eight hundred heads of cattle, two thousand camels, four hundred suits of armour, four hundred spears and five hundred swords. Khalid accepted this gift from him and brought him to the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet spared his life and concluded a truce with him upon payment of the poll‑tax.
It is reported in Bayhaqi's Dala'ilu'l‑Nubuwwah on the authority of Abu 'l-Aswad that when the Messenger of Allah was on his way back from Tabuk, some of his Companions plotted against him. They agreed to travel with him through a steep road and throw him over the cliff. The Messenger of Allah was, however, informed of their plot. He thus advised: “Let anyone of you who wish, take the road through the valley, for it is more spacious for you! ” Yet he himself took the steep road. All the men took the road through the valley, except those who had plotted against him; they made ready and masked themselves.
The Messenger of Allah commanded Hudhayfah ibn al‑Yaman and Ammar ibn Yasir to walk with him. He ordered `Ammar to lead his she‑camel, and Hudhayfah to drive her on from behind. As they were thus going, they heard the hastening footsteps of the men who had all surrounded him. The Apostle of Allah became angry, and ordered Hudhayfah to turn them away from him. Hudhayfah ran after them with a thick staff with a twisted handle and struck them with it in their faces. The men scattered, and Allah caused them to be frightened as they saw Hudhayfah. They thought that their malicious scheme had been discovered. They thus ran until they intermingled with the people, and Hudhayfah returned to the Messenger of Allah.
The Prophet ordered Hudhayfah to drive the she‑camel on, and `Ammar to lead her quickly until they came out of the steep road, where they halted to wait for the men. The Prophet asked: “O Hudhayfah, did you recognize the horse or camel of any of these men?” “Yes”, he answered, “I recognized the mount of this and that man” ‑ even though the darkness of the night had covered them, and they were masked. The Prophet asked: “Do you know what these riders wished to do?” “No, O Apostle of Allah”, they said.
He continued: “They plotted to travel at my side through this steep road, so that when darkness had covered the road, they would push me down the cliff!” Hudhayfah and `Ammar asked: “When the people come, will you not, O Apostle of Allah, order that they be beheaded?” “I do not wish that men talk later and say that Muhammad has finally attacked his own Companions”, he answered. He then named the culprits all for them, and said: “Keep their names a secret!” It is reported in Aban ibn `Uthman's book that they were twelve men, seven of whom were of the Quraysh.7
It is reported that the Prophet then returned to Medina. Whenever he returned from a journey, he was received with Hasan and Husayn. He would take them in his arms and go straight to the house of Fatimah, with the Muslims crowding all around him. They would wait for him at the door until he came out, then they would walk with him to his home, when they would disperse.
It is related on the authority of Abu Hamid as‑Sa'idi (a well‑known Companion) who said: “We returned with the Messenger of Allah from the Battle of Tabuk. When we came within sight of Medina, he said: `This is Tabah (the good place, another name for Medina), and this is Mount Uhud. It loves us and we love it.' ” It is further reported on the authority of Anas ibn Malik that when the Messenger came close to Medina, he said: “There are in Medina certain people who are with you on whatever journey you make through any valley or plain.” The people asked: “O Apostle of Allah, even though they remain in Medina?” “Yes”, he answered, “even though they remain in Medina, for there they shall be obliged to stay.”
The engagement of Tabuk was the last battle which the Messenger undertook. `Abdullah ibn Ubayy (the well‑known Hypocrite) died shortly after the Messenger of Allah's return from this engagement.
During the last days of the pilgrimage of the ninth year of the hijrah the surah which begins: This is
a declaration of immunity from Allah and His Apostle… (surah 9)
was sent down. The Prophet delivered the sacred writ to Abu Bakr, who set out with it (for Mecca). Gabriel, however, came down and said to the Prophet: “No one can execute your affairs except you or 'Ali.” He thus dispatched 'Ali on his own she‑camel, called al‑`Adba', after Abu Bakr. When he caught up with him, he took the writ from him. Abu Bakr asked: “Has anything been revealed concerning me?” “No,” 'Ali answered, “but no one can execute the Apostle of Allah's affairs except he himself, or I .”
`Ali went on with the sacred text, which he then recited repeatedly and with a loud voice in Mecca on the Day of Sacrifice (Idd al‑Adha) and the three days following. He was enjoined to abrogate the covenant of the Associators; and he was (also) to announce that no naked person should henceforth circumambulate the Sacred House (the Ka'bah), and that no Associator should henceforth be allowed to enter the Sacred Mosque; and that any covenant made with the Prophet, should be allowed to run its stated term; but anyone who had no such covenant would be given respite for four months. If after four months we capture him, we shall slay him. This is the meaning of Allah's saying:
But when the (four) sacred months have elapsed. . ., until His saying: lie in wait for them in every place of ambush (Qur'an 9 : 5 ).
It is reported that when `Ali entered Mecca, he unsheathed his sword and, welding it, exclaimed: “By Allah, no naked man shall circumambulate the House, but that I shall strike him with my sword!” He thus forced them to wear their clothes, and they performed the rite of circumambulation dressed. It is reported that a man called `Urwah ibn Mas'ud ath-Thaqafi came to the Apostle of Allah declaring his Islam. He then requested permission to return to his people (i.e., the tribe of Thaqif). The Prophet answered: “I fear that they might kill you.” He assured him saying: “Even if they find me sleeping, they would not disturb me.” The Messenger of Allah gave him permission, and he returned to at‑Ta'if, where he called his people to Islam and offered them good counsel, but they did not obey him. They even hurled insults at him.
One day, as he stood on the roof of his house and raised the call to prayer, a man shot an arrow at him and killed him. Shortly after his death, however, a delegation of about fifteen men of the notables of Thaqif came to the Messenger of Allah declaring their Islam. The Messenger of Allah showed them hospitality and kindness. He sent with them as his representative `Uthman ibn Abi 'l-`As ibn Bishr, who had learnt a number of surahs of the Qur'an.
It is reported that he said: “O Apostle of Allah, Satan has come between my prayers and recitation (i.e., of the Qur'an in prayer).” He answered: “This is a Satan called Khinzub (which means a piece of filthy flesh). If you fear him, take refuge in Allah from him (i.e., by reciting the formula: a'udhu bi'llahi mina'sh‑Shaytani 'r‑rajim), and spit three times to your left.” `Uthman went on: “I did this, and Allah removed him from me.”
After the tribe of Thaqif had entered into Islam, numerous delegations of other Arab tribes followed one another to the Messenger of Allah: entering into the religion of Allah in droves, as Allah the Exalted says (see Qur'an 110) . Among them was `Utarid ibn Hajib ibn Zurarah who came to him with a delegation of the notables of the tribe of Tamim, among whom were al‑Aqra` ibn Habis, az‑Zibriqan ibn Badr, Qays ibn `Asim, `Uyaynah ibn Hisn al‑Fazari and `Amr ibn al‑Ahtam. al‑Aqra` and `Uyaynah had already witnessed with the Messenger of Allah the conquest of Mecca and the battles of Hunayn and at‑Ta'if. Thus, when the delegation of Tamim came, they too came with them.
The Messenger of Allah offered them a pact of protection (jiwar) and treated them hospitably. Another of the delegations which came to him was that of the tribe of `Amir, among whom was `Amir ibn at‑Tufayl and Arbad ibn Qays, the stepbrother of Labid ibn Rabi'ah. `Amir, however, said to Arbad: “I shall stand before him so that he will not be able to see you. When I do this, then strike him with your sword!” Thus `Amir said to the Prophet, “O Muhammad, embrace me! ” “No, not until you believe in Allah alone”, the Prophet answered. `Amir repeated his demand twice, but when the Messenger of Allah refused, he said: “By Allah, I shall fill the place with red horses and men against you! ” When he left, the Messenger of Allah prayed saying: “O Allah spare me `Amir ibn at ‑Tufayl ! ”
On the way, `Amir enquired of Arbad, “Why did you not do as I had ordered you?” He replied: “By Allah, every time I came close to executing your command, you came between me and the man ‑ would I want to strike you with the sword?” While still on his way, Allah sent against `Amir a plague in his neck which killed him while he was in the house of a woman of the tribe of Salul. After his companions buried him, they went home. Allah also sent against Arbad and his camel a thunderbolt which burnt them both.
It is further reported in Aban ibn `Uthman's book that `Amir and Arbad came to the Messenger of Allah after the engagement with the Jewish tribe of Banu 'n‑Nadir. As `Amir was breathing his last, he repeated, “A disease (I have) that would kill even a young camel, and I shall suffer death in the house of this Salulite woman! “He states further that the Messenger of Allah prayed concerning `Amir and Arbad, “O Allah, grant me in their stead the two strongest horsemen of the Arabs!” Thus the well‑known warrior Zayd ibn Muhalhal at‑Tai known as `Zaydu'l-Khayl' (Zayd of the many horses) and `Amr ibn Ma'dikarib (another well‑known fighter) came to him.
Among those who came to the Messenger of Allah were the delegation of the tribe of Tayy, among whom were Zaydu'l-Khayl and `Adiyy ibn Hatim. He invited them to Islam, and they all accepted and lived a good Muslim life. The Messenger of Allah renamed Zayd `Zayd of goodness' (Zaydu'l-Khayr). He granted him a place called Fayd (near Mecca) and two plots of land in addition. He also gave him a written deed. When Zayd left the Apostle of Allah to go back to his people, the Prophet predicted: “Would that Zayd be spared the fever of Medina and the pain of death!” As Zayd crossed the district of Najd and reached a spring of water called Faradah, he fell ill with fever and died there. His wife took whatever epistles and pledges he had and consigned them to the fire.'
Ibn Ishaq reported that `Adiyy ibn Hatim first fled before the Muslim armies, but the horsemen of the Messenger of Allah captured his sister and brought her to the Prophet. He, however, gave her clothes, money and other gifts. She travelled with different caravans until she arrived in Syria, where she advised her brother to go to the Prophet. He went and accepted Islam, and the Messenger of Allah treated him honorably, seating him on a cushion and offering him his hand (as a sign of friendship).
Another man who came to the Messenger of Allah was `Amr ibn Ma'dikarib, who accepted Islam. He then looked at Abu 'I‑`Ath'ath al‑Khath'ami pulling him by the neck and brought to the Messenger of Allah saying: “Help me to kill this wicked man, for he killed my father.” The Prophet answered: “Islam has annulled everything that was in the jahiliyyah.” `Amr then departed an apostate. He thus attacked a people of the tribe of Banu Harith ibn Ka'b. The Messenger of Allah dispatched `Ali to the tribe of Banu Zubayd and entrusted to him the banner of the Immigrants.
He also dispatched Khalid ibn al‑Walid at the head of a detachment of the Bedouins. He commanded Khalid to set out for a place called Ju'fiyy. He instructed further that when Khalid and 'Ali met, then 'Ali ibn Abi Talib was to be the leader of the men. 'Ali went on, placing at the head of the advance troops of his army Khalid ibn Said ibn al‑`As. When the people of Zubayd saw him, they said to `Amr : “What would you think, O Abu Thawr, if this Qurayshite youth were to encounter you and force you to pay the land tax?” “He shall know when he meets me”, `Amr retorted.
`Amr set out, as did the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali; 'Ali uttered a loud cry, and `Amr fled. His brother and brother's son were slain, and his wife Rukanah, along with other women, was taken captive. 'Ali left as his representative over the tribe of Zubayd Khalid ibn Said to receive their zakat (obligatory alms) payments. He was also instructed to grant a pledge of safety (aman) to any man who had fled, if he returned a Muslim. `Amr himself returned and declared his Islam to Khalid ibn Said. He also spoke to him concerning his wife and children, and Khalid gave them back to him.
'Ali chose for himself from among the women captives a youthful maiden.
Thus Khalid sent Buraydah al‑Aslami to the Prophet, and said to him: “Proceed before the army and inform the Prophet of what 'Ali has done, in that he chose a maiden for himself from the fifth of the booty” ‑thus criticizing `Ali (because the fifth belongs to the Prophet, (see Qur'an 8:41 ) ). Buraydah hastened to the Prophet carrying Khalid's letter. As he began to read it to the Messenger of Allah, the latter's face began to change (with displeasure). Buraydah observed: “Did you, O Apostle of Allah, permit people to do such a thing? The men have been deprived of their share of the booty.”
The Messenger of Allah answered: “O Buraydah, you have spoken words of hypocrisy. For, surely whatever is lawful for me of the booty, is also lawful for 'Ali. 'Ali is indeed the best of men for you and for your people. He is the best man whom I would leave as my representative over my community after me. O Buraydah, beware that you do not hate 'Ali, for Allah would then despise you.” Buraydah reported that, “I wished then that the earth would open up and swallow me. I exclaimed, `I take refuge in Allah from Allah's wrath and the wrath of His Apostle. O Apostle of Allah, beg Allah's forgiveness for me! I shall never again hate 'Ali, nor will I say anything but good about him.' ” Thus the Prophet asked Allah to forgive Buraydah. Buraydah said: ” 'Ali became henceforth the most beloved of men to me after the Apostle of Allah.”
A delegation from Najran, including a number of the notables of the city, came to the Messenger of Allah. There came also three men who held authority over them. There was al ‑`Aqib, whose name was `Abdu'l-Masih. He was their commander and man of counsel, and no decision was 'taken without his approval. The second man was as‑Sayyid, who was their chief and leader in all matters. His name was al‑Ayham. The third was Abu Harithah ibn `Alqamah the bishop, who was their great man of learning, their leader (imam) in matters of faith and overseer of their houses of study. He was held in great honour, and enjoyed high status among them. Even Byzantine kings had built great churches for him, showering upon him all manners of special favours because of his great learning and diligence in the study of their faith.
On their way to the Messenger of Allah, Abu Harithah rode a mule, with his brother Kurz beside him; and a man called Bishr ibn `Alqamah walking with him. Abu Harithah's mule stumbled, and Kurz exclaimed: “Perish that man!” meaning the Messenger of Allah. Abu Harithah replied: “Rather, perish you, yourself!” “Why, O brother?” Kurz asked. He said: “By Allah, he is indeed the Prophet for whom we have been waiting.” Kurz objected: “What prevents you then from following him?” “It is what these people have done for us”; .Abu Harithah said, “they have treated us with great honour and generosity, yet they have insisted on opposing him. Were I to follow him, they would take away from us all that you see.”
Abu Harithah's brother Kurz kept what he told him a secret until he accepted Islam. He hurried beating his mount and reciting To you (Muhammad) this mount anxiously hastens; Even though its fetus is protruding big in its belly. Its faith is indeed opposed to the faith of the Christians. When Kurz arrived in Medina, he went to the Prophet and declared his Islam.
It is reported that the delegation of Najran arrived at the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah at the mid‑afternoon hour. They were clad in silks and rich apparel ‑ none of the Arabs had ever come to the Prophet so richly dressed. Abu Bakr said: “May my father and mother be a ransom for you, O Apostle of Allah, if you would wear your rich apparel which the Byzantine Emperor (Qaysar) presented to you, so that they would see you dressed in it!” It is reported that they came to the Messenger of Allah and greeted him with the salutation of peace, but he neither returned their greeting nor did he speak to them. They went out looking for `Uthman ibn `Affan and `Abdu'r‑Rahman ibn `Awf, who were acquaintances of theirs. They found them in an assembly of the Immigrants, and complained to them:
“Your Prophet wrote to us a letter, and here are we come in answer to his call. We greeted him, but he did not even return our greeting or speak to us. What is your advice to us?” `Uthman and `Abdu'r‑Rahman asked 'Ali: “What is your advice, O Abu 'l-Hasan (that is, 'Ali's agnomen) to these people?” He answered: “I suggest that they take off their rich attire and rings, and then go back to him.” They did as he suggested and went to the Prophet; they greeted him, and he returned their greeting. He then said: “By Allah, they came to me the first time, and Iblis (that is, Satan) was with them.”
They spent that day questioning and debating with him. The bishop asked: “What do you say concerning the Lord Christ, O Muhammad?” “He is the servant of Allah and His Apostle”, he replied. They then engaged in hot disputation concerning the status of Jesus with Allah. Finally, Allah sent down to the Prophet the beginning verses of surah 3, `The House of `Imran', around seventy verses following one another. Among the verses which Allah sent down were:
Surely the similitude of Jesus with Allah is like that of Adam. He created him out of clay; then He said to him “be ” and he was. This is the truth from your Lord, so be not among the doubters. Whoever, therefore, shall dispute with you concerning him after the knowledge that has come to you, say: “Come! Let us call together our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us pray and invoke Allah's curse upon the liars. ” (Qur'an 3 : 59 ‑ 61 ).
They said to the Prophet: “We shall engage you in this test of prayer (mubahalah) tomorrow morning.” But Abu Harithah said to his Companions: “Consider well! If Muhammad comes to you for the mubahalah with his grandsons and people of his Household, beware that you not engage him in this test of prayer. If, however, he comes with his Companions and followers, then you may enter into this contest with him.”
Aban reported on the authority of Hasan al‑Basri (an important theologian and traditionist of the second generation) that the Messenger of Allah went next morning holding Hasan and Husayn by the hand; he was followed by Fatimah, and 'Ali walking by his side. al‑`Aqib and as‑Sayyid likewise came with two sons, one of whom was decorated with two pearls as large as dove's eggs.
They all surrounded Abu Harithah. Abu Harithah asked: “Who are these who are with him?” He was told, “This is his paternal cousin and husband of his daughter, these are their two sons, and this is his daughter. They are the dearest people to him and nearest to his heart.”
The Messenger of Allah stepped forward and knelt on his knees. Abu Harithah exclaimed: “By Allah, he knelt as would prophets for the mubahalah ! ” He then stepped back frightened, and refused to engage in the contest. as‑Sayyid said: “Come forth, O Abu Harithah, for the mubahalah ! ” Abu Harithah answered: “I see here a man coming for the mubahalah with courage and resolution. I am afraid that if he be truthful, the year would not elapse with any Christian remaining alive to drink water.” It is reported that, had they engaged the Prophet in the mubahalah, torment would have come down from heaven against them.
They finally, said: “O Abu 'l-Qasim, we shall not enter with you into a test of prayer, but rather we wish to make peace with you.” The Messenger of Allah thus concluded a truce with them with the agreement that they remit two thousand costly garments, the value of each being forty sound dirhams. He had a document drawn up concerning this agreement. He then said to Abu Harithah, the bishop: “I see that you shall go to your saddle sleepy and thus will tie it onto your mount front to back.” When he prepared to leave, he did actually saddle his mount upside down. He then exclaimed: “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah! ”
Then the Messenger of Allah sent 'Ali to Yemen to call its people to Islam. It is also reported that he was sent in order to receive the fifth of their obligatory alms (zakat), teach them the precepts of Islam and clarify for them the things that are lawful and those that are unlawful. He was also sent to the people of Najran to collect their freewill gifts, and to bring back to the Prophet their jizyah.
It is related by Abu `Abdillah, al‑Hafiz on the authority of `Amr ibn Shas al‑Aslami who said: “I was with 'Ali ibn Abi Talib with a group of people. 'Ali acted somewhat coolly towards me, and I felt some hostility in my heart toward him. When I returned to Medina, I accused him to anyone I met. I came one day to the Mosque where the Messenger of Allah was sitting. He gazed at me until I sat near him. He then said: “O `Amr ibn Shas, you have hurt me.” I answered: “To Allah do we belong, and to Him we shall return. I take refuge in Allah and in Islam from injuring the Apostle of Allah.” He declared: “Anyone who hurts 'Ali has hurt me.”
The Prophet had previously sent Khalid ibn al‑Walid to the people of Yemen to call them to Islam, but they did not listen to him. al‑Bard' (a well‑known Companion) related: “I was with 'Ali when we came near the people; he led us in prayer. Then seating us all in one line, he began to read to them the Messenger of Allah's letter.
Thereupon the tribe of Hamdan in its entirety entered Islam. 'Ali wrote concerning this to the Apostle of Allah, who fell prostrate when the letter was read to him. Then lifting his head up, he said: “Peace be upon the people of Hamdan.” It is also related that 'Ali said: “The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen. I asked, `O Apostle of Allah, would you send me when I am yet a youth, to judge among the people without knowing what judging really is?' He struck me with his hand in the chest and prayed, `O Allah, guide well his heart and confirm his tongue!' By Him in whose hand is my soul, I never thereafter doubted any judgment I passed between any two people. ”
On the 25th Dhu'l-Qi'dah, the last month of 10/632, the Apostle of Allah set out from Medina for the pilgrimage. He declared the call for the hajj (greater pilgrimage) to all the Muslims. People made ready to set out with him; thus the suburbs of Medina and its districts were crowded with pilgrims. When they reached Dhu'l-Hulayfah, Asma' daughter of `Umays gave birth to Muhammad son of Abu Bakr. The Prophet remained there that night for her sake, entering, however, with the people into the state of consecration in Dhu'l-Hulayfah. He intended that ihram (state of consecration) be for both the lesser and .greater pilgrimages. He thus led the animal sacrifices ‑ leading with him sixty six head of cattle and camels.
`Ali also set out for the hajj from Yemen, leading with him thirty‑four head of cattle and camels for sacrifice. He set out with the fighters who accompanied him to Yemen, and brought the rich garments which he had received from the Christians of Najran. As the Messenger of Allah approached Mecca on the road from Medina, the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali, approached it at the time on the road from Yemen. He preceded the army in order to meet the Messenger of Allah, who was gladdened by his coming. He asked `Ali: “How did you determine the rising of the crescent, O 'Ali?” He answered: “O Apostle of Allah, you did not write to me concerning your sighting of the moon. I therefore made my intention to agree with yours; I prayed, `O Allah, grant me sighting of the moon similar to that of your Prophet.' ” The Prophet concurred saying: “You are my partner in my pilgrimage rites, my devotions and sacrifices. Continue, therefore, in your state of consecration, and hasten to your army so that we may all meet in Mecca.
It is also reported on the authority of the Imam as‑Sadiq that the Messenger of Allah led with him one hundred head for sacrifice, but slaughtered only some sixty animals. He gave the rest, some thirty animals, to `Ali. When 'Ali reached his army, he found that the people had donned the garments which he had brought from Najran. He reproached his representative saying: “Woe to you, how could you do this without the permission of the Apostle of Allah?” He answered: “They asked me to give them the garments, so that they would adorn themselves with them, and perform their ihram in them.” He retorted: “Bad indeed is that which both you and they have done! ” He thus took the garments away from them and packed them in sacks. Men began to complain against 'Ali from all sides. Then the crier of the Messenger of Allah went around calling: “Hold your tongues from any accusations against 'Ali, for he is harsh in Allah's cause!”
When the Prophet arrived in Mecca and performed the rites of circumambulation (tawaf of the Ka'bah) and running (sa`i, between the two hills of as‑Safa and al‑Marwah), Gabriel came down to him while he was on al‑Marwa with this verse:
Complete the pilgrimage and the lesser pilgrimage for Allah . . . (Qur'an 2 :196) .
He thus delivered a sermon, praising Allah, then said: “The `umrah has entered into the hall' in this manner, and shall remain so till the Day of Resurrection” ‑ and he intertwined his fingers.
He continued: “Had I encountered at the start of my journey what I encountered at its end (that is, meeting 'Ali and his army), I would not have brought animal sacrifices with me.” He then ordered his crier to declare to the people: “Anyone of you who has not brought animal sacrifices with him, let him release himself from the state of consecration and make his pilgrimage only an `umrah. But as for those who did bring their animal sacrifices with them, let them remain in their state of consecration.”
A man of the tribe of `Adiyy came to the Prophet and objected: “O Apostle of Allah, would you lead us to Mina (one of the pilgrimage stations) while our hairs drip with the water of washing after sexual relations with our wives?” He answered: “You shall not believe in it until you die! ” (The reference here is to the mut'ah (enjoyment) of the hajj, which means release from the state of ihram for the `umrah and then renewing one's consecration for the hajj. ) Another man, Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju'shum, came forth and enquired: “O Apostle of Allah, is this for this year only, or for ever?” “No”, he answered, “but forever.” Thus all the people, except those who had brought their animal sacrifices with them, were released from the sate of ihram.
On the day of leaving Mina, the Messenger of Allah spoke again to the people and bade them farewell. When he had completed his pilgrimage rites and set out for Medina, the Messenger of Allah reached the place known as Ghadir Khumm. Even though it was not a suitable spot for stopping, because of the lack of water and pasturage, still Gabriel came down to the Prophet and ordered him to halt and appoint `Ali as imam (spiritual and temporal leader) of the people. The Prophet protested saying: “My community is still too close to the jahiliyyah.” It was, however, revealed to him that this was a command which could not be revoked. The verse:
O Apostle, convey that which has been sent down to you from your Lord! For if you do not, you would not have conveyed His message, and Allah shall protect you from the people (Qur'an 5 :67) ,
was sent down.
Thus the Messenger of Allah and all the Muslims around him dismounted in the spot which we have already mentioned, on an exceedingly hot day. The Messenger of Allah ordered that canopies be spread over some trees. He likewise ordered that saddles be brought and stacked one on top of another (so as to make a pulpit). He then ordered his crier to cry out to the people “Hasten to congregational prayer! ” The people gathered to the Prophet from all sides, many of them wrapping their feet with their garments because of the heat.
The Prophet mounted the saddles until he stood at the top, then called. 'Ali to his side. As `Ali stood at the right hand of the Prophet, the latter spoke to the people, first praising Allah and exalting His Name, then admonishing the people and informing them of his impending end. He said: “I have been summoned, and I shall soon answer. My time to depart your company has come. Yet I am leaving with you that to which, if you hold fast, you shall never go astray: the Book of Allah and my progeny, the people of my Household.
They shall not be separated until they come to me at Hawdu'l-Kawthar (a paradisial pool).” He then cried out with a loud voice: “Am I not more master over you than your own selves?” “By Allah, yes!” they all answered. He said: “Then continue in this manner.” He then took hold of 'Ali's two arms and lifted them high until people could see his white underarms. He said: “Of whomever I am the master, 'Ali is his master. O Allah, befriend those who hold loyalty to him, and be an enemy to those who hold hostility towards him. Grant support to those who support him, and abandon those who abandon him! ”
Following this, the Prophet came down; it was the noon hour. He offered two rak`ahs of prayer, and when the sun reached its meridian his mu'adhdhin raised the call of prayer, and the Prophet led the people in the noon prayer. He then sat in his tent and ordered `Ali to sit in a tent close by. The Prophet then ordered all the Muslims to go into `Ale's tent in groups to congratulate him on appointment to the imamate, and greet him with the title of “Amiru'l mu'minin” (Commander of the Faithful). For the rest of the day, people went in and out of `Ale's tent in accordance with the Prophet's command. He then ordered his wives and all the wives of the men of faith to enter with him into `Ale's tent and greet him with the title of “Commander of the Faithful”. They all did as he ordered. The man who was most lavish in his congratulations was `Umar ibn al‑Khattab. He said among other things, “Well well! O `Ali, you have now become my master (maula) and the master of every man and woman of faith.”
Hassan (the Prophet's poet) recited in honour of this occasion the following verses:
On the day of Ghadir Khumm their Prophet called them,
With a voice loud for all to hear.