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Glossary of Terms

Azadari: A word which refers to the mourning ceremonies that are held for the martyrdom of Imam al-husayn, peace be upon him, specifically, or any of the other Imams from the family of the Prophet of Islam.

Baligh: The age at which a Muslim becomes responsible - meaning that certain acts such as Salat, Fasting, hajj, etc… become wajib upon him or her. This age can be proven by many means, the most common of which is the completion of 15 lunar years for a boy and 9 lunar years for a girl.

Chador: A common covering worn by the women in Iran which goes on top of their regular clothing and is usually black in color.

Fatawa: An Islamic ruling given by a qualified Marja’.

Ghina: Prolonging the sound along with a change in pitch in a way that is suited to vain and futile gatherings and assemblies of sinning.

haram: Forbidden, prohibited. It is necessary to abstain from the acts, which are haram. If someone performs a haram act, he will be punished, such as eating pork, or drinking alcohol.

Ihtiyat Mustahab: Recommended Precaution. Its significance is the same as that of Mustahab. When a Mujtahid uses this term, he means that there is no solid proof of that particular act being Mustahab, but his standards of precaution demand that it be considered as Mustahab.

Ihtiyat Wajib: Obligatory Precaution. Its significance is the same as that of Wajib, with the difference that in the rules where a Mujtahid says it is “obligatory precaution”, you have the option of leaving his taqlid (following) in that particular problem, and following the rulings of the second most knowledgeable Mujtahid.

Kafir: A non-Believer.

Libas ash-Shuhrah: notorious clothing. That clothing which has certain qualities or characteristics that attract the attention of the general public causing one to stand out in a crowd.

Mahram: A person to whom marriage is forbidden; for example: one’s sister, brother, mother, father, etc…

Makruh: Reprehensible, disliked. Those acts whose performance is not punished, but whose avoidance is rewarded, such as eating in a state of Janabat.

Mantou: A long over-coat commonly worn by Iranian women.

Mumayyiz: The age at which a child can discern between right and wrong, and (the age at which) he or she knows of the differences between a man and a woman.

Mubah: Ja’iz, halal, permitted, allowed, lawful, legal. An act or thing which is permitted and lawful. There is no reward for performing it and no punishment for neglecting it, for example: drinking tea. Mubah is mostly used for lawful things, not for permitted actions.

Mustahab: Recommendable, desirable or better. Those acts which if neglected are not punished, but whose performance is rewarded, such as the call to prayer (Azhan).

Nikah Ceremony: A ceremony in which the marriage ‘aqd (contract) is read.

Non-Baligh: A person who has not reached the age of maturity, according to Islamic law.

Non-Mahram: A person with whom marriage is permitted.

Shariah: The noble and sacred law of Islam brought by the Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him and his family) that forms the basis of all areas of a Muslim’s life, including civil, criminal, and public law.

Surma: A black powder-like substance that, as has been mentioned in numerous ahadith, is Mustahab to use in one’s the eyes.

Wajib: Obligatory, necessary, incumbent. An act which must be performed. One will be rewarded for performing it and punished for neglecting it, for example: the daily prayers, and fasting in the month of Ramazan.

Wali: The guardian – usually the father, but in a case of his absence, the grandfather becomes the guardian.

Wedding Ceremony: A program or gathering that takes place after the recitation of the wedding contract (in some cases, the wedding ceremony may be at the same time as the nikah ceremony).

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