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Rules related To covering

بسم الله الرّحمن الرّحيم

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاساً يُوَارِي سَوْئَاتِكُمْ وَرِيشاً وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ ذَلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللّهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ .

“O children of Adam! We have indeed sent down to you clothing to cover your shame, and (clothing) for beauty and clothing that guards (against evil), that is the best. This is of the communications of Allah that they may be mindful.

Al-Qur’an · Surah A’raf · Ayah 26

Covering for Men

A) Clothing Forbidden for Men

79 – Rule: It is haram for men to wear clothing that is made of 100% pure silk, even if it is a skull-cap or a belt, regardless of whether or not it can be seen by a man or a woman who is a Mahram or non-Mahram. KMST

It is haram for men to wear clothing that is made of 100% pure silk, but as for things such as a skull-cap, belt or socks which in itself can not be used to cover the private parts, if they are made of 100% pure silk then apparently it is allowed to read the Salat (with these things on the person) although it is against Ihtiyat B

Attention: This explanation is in the meaning of Ihtiyat Mustahab and therefore according to his ruling, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, at the time of Salat, men should not have on things like a skull-cap, socks, etc (made of pure silk)…

It is haram for men to wear clothing that is made of 100% pure silk. Also, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed for men to wear things such as a skull-cap, belt, etc… that in itself can not be used to cover the private parts, if they are made from 100% silk. AGL

80 – Rule: If the entire or a part of the lining of clothing is made from 100% pure silk, then it is not allowed for a man to wear it. ABKLMST

If the amount of silk is less than the size of four closed fingers, then it is not a problem, and any amount more than this is haram for men to wear. G

81 – Rule: It is haram for men to wear clothing that is made of 100% pure silk, even if it is the clothing that is not apparent, for example, underclothing. ABGKLMST

82 – Rule: It is not a problem to wear clothing that has braids or laces made of silk, or if it has a patch or emblem made of silk on it. AGKLMS

83 – Rule: It is not a problem to have something made of pure silk with you, such as a handkerchief in the pocket. ABGKLMST

84 – Rule: If a type of clothing is made of a mix of silk and something other than silk, then in the event that the term 100% silk can not be applied to that clothing, it is not a problem to wear it. However, if it is such that it can be referred to as 100% silk, then it is not permitted to wear it. AGKLMS

85 – Rule: It is not a problem to wear clothing if one is in doubt whether it is 100% silk or something else. ABGKLMST

86 – Rule: It is not a problem to wear clothing that has been stitched with thread made of silk. AGKLMS

Apparently, it is allowed. B

87 – Rule: It is haram for men to beautify themselves with gold, or wear clothing that has been stitched with gold, whether it be something apparent or hidden, and the Salat prayed (by a man who has gold on) is void. Therefore, if for example, a man is wearing gold chain around his neck, then even if it is hidden (under his shirt), it is still haram. ABGKLMST

88 – Rule: It is not allowed for men to beautify themselves with anything made of gold, whether it is something apparent or hidden. ABGKLMST

Therefore: It is not allowed for a man to wear a gold bracelet or a gold necklace, even if it is under the clothing and can not be seen. Also, it is not allowed to wear a gold watch or gold cuff links or any other type of beautification that is made of gold.

89 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, men must not wear glasses made of gold either. GKLM

It is haram for men to wear glasses made of gold. ST

90 – Rule: White gold does not have the same ruling as yellow gold, and the wearing of it for men is not a problem, except that which is in reality yellow gold, but only the colour of it has changed. K

If white gold is a metal other than yellow gold, then it is not a problem for men to wear it. AGMST

If white gold is referred to as gold and is the same thing as yellow gold, then it is not allowed for men to wear it. L

91 – Rule: It is not a problem to beautify or decorate one’s self with something that is gold coated, in the event that in reality it can not be considered as gold. ABGKLMST

92 – Rule: If something is a mixture of yellow gold and another metal, and if the yellow gold has become mixed such that in reality it is no longer considered as yellow gold, then it does not have the ruling as gold. AM

It is not allowed for mean to wear anything that is a mixture of gold and other than gold. L

93 – Rule: If a man doubts whether an item is made of gold or not, then the usage of it for him is not a problem. AGKLM

If it is considered as gold, then it is not allowed. B

94 – Question: What is the ruling for a man if he purchases a gold ring or a gold watch for his wife, and in order to see if it will fit or to protect it, puts it on his hand? What is the ruling for this if it is during Salat or even otherwise?

Answer: It is haram for the man; and his Salat while wearing it, is void. G

95 – Question: A man buys a gold ring for his wife and in order to check the size, he puts it on his finger. Does this amount of wearing it have any relevance or not?

Answer: In this instance, for that amount of time (that he is just trying it), is not a problem. G

B) Covering for Men in Front of Maharim, Men, and Others

B) Covering for Men in Front of Maharim, Men, and Others1

96 – Rule: Men must cover their private parts from other men and those women that are his Mahram, however it is not Wajib to cover the rest of their body from them. ABGKLMST

97 – Question: Is it sufficient for a man to (only) wear swimming trunks or other types of under clothing which show the shape of the private parts, but do not show the skin, in front of others?

Answer: If there is no fear of falling into sin, then it is not a problem. AGKLMST

Answer: If it leads to corruption or falling into sin, then it is not allowed. B

98 – Rule: It is haram for a man not to cover a part of his body with the intention of making others fall into sin. AGKT

That amount of the body that must be covered, is the same amount of the body that is haram to be left open, even if others will not fall into sin. As for those parts of the body that are not wajib to be covered, if it (being kept open) will lead one to commit a haram act, then it is wajib to cover that area as well. B

99 – Rule: It is haram to take off one’s clothes in the presence of other men or one’s Maharim with the intention of sexually arousing others. One’s spouse is an exception. AGKT

That amount of the body that must be covered, is the same amount of the body that is haram to be left open, even if others will not fall into sin. As for those parts of the body that are not wajib to be covered, if it (being kept open) will lead one to commit a haram act, then it is wajib to cover that area as well. B

100 – Rule: Doctors are not an exception to the above rules and therefore men must keep their private parts covered in front of them as well, except in the case of necessity. ABGKLMST

Summary: That which is an exception to the covering of men is in the case of a necessity. Thus, if a man is compelled, he is permitted to expose his private parts in front of the doctor (for example, some illnesses in which it is necessary to expose the private parts in order to be cured). In cases other than this (such as for birth control, except in the case of necessity), a man must cover his private parts in front of others, even if it may be his father, brother, or son. He must also cover his private parts from other Maharim like such as his sister, mother, aunt, and anyone else.

C) Covering of Men in the Presence of Non-Mahram Women

101 – Rule: A man must cover his private parts when in the presence of non-Mahram women, but it is not wajib to cover the rest of his body. AGKLMS

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, a man must cover his body from non-Mahram women even if it (not covering the body) does not lead one to a haram act; but if it does lead one to it, then without a doubt it is wajib to cover the body in the same way that covering the private parts from the view of non-Mahram women is wajib. B

102 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Mustahab, men must cover other parts of the body that are normally covered by men, while in the presence of non-Mahram women, especially if the man knows that the non-Mahram women may look at them with the intention of lust. KLM

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, men must cover their body from the view of non-Mahram women, even if it does not lead one to a haram act, and if it does, then without doubt it is wajib to cover it. B

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, a man must cover those parts that are commonly covered by men, in the event that he knows that a non-family member woman will look at him. G

Therefore: Men must cover the area above their wrist, the chest, the feet and other parts that men usually cover from non-Mahram women who are in their presence. As for covering the other parts such as the head, face, and hands, it is not necessary.

103 – Rule: It is haram to expose any part of the body with the intention of sexually arousing non-Mahrams. AGK

If it helps or leads one to commit a haram act, then without a doubt it is wajib to cover the body. B

Therefore: It is haram for a man to expose his arms, chest or any other part of his body with the intention of having non-Mahram women look at him. Also, it is haram for him to wear a see-thru shirt with the intention of having non-Mahram women look at his body, thus he must also refrain from these acts. If clothing such as a short sleeve shirt is worn, however not with the intention of arousing others, but it is known that others may fall into sin, then according to Ihtiyat Mustahab one should not wear such clothing.

104 – Question: Can a non-Mahram woman give an injection to a man, take his blood pressure, or take an x-ray of him?

Answer: If it necessitates touching or a forbidden look at the body of the man, then it is not allowed, except in the case of necessity. AGKLMS

Looking at the body of a non-Mahram man, if it does not lead one to commit a haram act, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, is not allowed; and if it will lead one to commit a haram act, then without doubt, it is haram to look at his body. In either scenario, it is not allowed to touch the body of a non-Mahram man except in the case of a necessity. B

105 – Question: In the event that a man knows that a non-Mahram woman will look at him, can he expose a bit more of his body than that which is normally covered by men? For example, can he be in the house with his underclothes on, go out to wash carpets, or his car, etc… roll up his pants in the event that he know that non-Mahram women will look at him, or swim in the presence of non-Mahram women?

Answer: If it is with the intention of leading others into something forbidden, then it is haram; and in situations other than this, it is still better to refrain from it, especially if the onlookers are young women. KLM

Answer: If it leads one to a haram act, then it is not permitted; but even if it does not lead one to a haram act, according to Ihtiyat Wajib the man must cover his body from the view of non-Mahram. B

Answer: If it is with the intention of leading others into something forbidden, then it is haram, and if not, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must still cover that which is normally covered. G

D) Covering for Men in the presence of Children

Children that are not Mumayyiz

106 – Rule: It is not wajib to cover any part of the body – even the private parts, if the child is not Mumayyiz, whether the child is a boy or a girl. BGKLMST

If the Child is Mumayyiz

107 – Rule: Men must cover their private parts from a child who is Mumayyiz, whether it is a boy or a girl, Mahram or a non-Mahram. AGKLMS

Therefore: Men must cover their private parts in front of their Mumayyiz children in the showers and other places.

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, a man must cover his body from girls who have not yet completed 9 years of age, but who understand good and bad, even if there is no intention of sexual pleasure. B

Covering of Women

A) Covering for Women in the Presence of Non-Mahram Men

108 – Rule: It is wajib for women to cover their entire body from non-Mahram Men; with the exception of their face and hands, as long as the following conditions are met:

Their face and hands must not have any kind of beautification (zinat) on them.

One will not look at their face or hands with the intention of lust. AKM

Women must cover their body and hair from non-Mahram men, even if there is no harm of falling into sin and even if there is no intention of deriving pleasure. B

A woman must cover her entire body except her face and hands from non-Mahram men, with the condition that there is no zinat on these parts and that her intention is not that she wants non-Mahram men to look at these parts. However, if non-Mahram men look at her face and hands with the intention of deriving pleasure, then it is not necessary for the woman to cover her face and hands. L

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women must also cover their face and hands from non-Mahram men. G

Women must cover the hair (on their head) and their body from non-Mahram men, with the exception of their face and hands; and if they fear that by not covering these parts they will fall into sin, or if their intention of not covering these parts is to make men look at them with a haram look, then in either of these two scenarios, it is not permitted to keep these two parts uncovered. S

A Woman must cover her entire body, with the exception of her face and hands from non-Mahram men; and in the event that there is any zinat on her face or hands, such as a ring or if she has shaped her eyebrows, or she has applied Surma to her eyes, even if these things are common among old women, it is not wajib to cover them. In other than these scenarios, a woman must cover her zinat from non-Mahram men. However, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, a woman should cover her face and hands from a non-Mahram, even if there is no zinat on them. T

109 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women must cover a bit more of their face and hands than that which is normally covered. (The face is said to be that part which is wajib to wash in Wuzhu, and it is stated that the hands are the part from the wrist to the fingertips.) AKLM

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the entire face and hands must be covered from non-Mahram men. G

According to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it is better for a woman to cover her face from non-Mahram men. T

110 – Question: According to the laws of Islam, is it allowed to expose the sole, top, malleolus and the heel of the foot, in front of non-Mahram men?

Answer: It is not allowed. ABGKLMST

Therefore: Women are not permitted to go in front of non-Mahram men without socks on their feet, or with their feet showing, go to a nearby store to buy even just one item. Also, if there are non-Mahram men in the house, then it is not permitted to come in their presence without having socks on, even if it may be one’s husband’s brother, a sister’s husband, or any other non-Mahram men.

111 – Rule: It is not permitted for women to reveal or expose the part under the chin, the neck, the ears, the chest or the forearm up to the upper arm; and therefore one must ensure that these parts are also covered from non-Mahram men. ABGKLMST

Note: Women must pay close attention to the following: In the house or in other places in which there are non-Mahram men present; if one is wearing something with short sleeves, or if one has long sleeves on and one is trying to reach to something which is high up; or taking something from the hands of a non-Mahram man; or offering fruits or other things to the non-Mahram; or when buying things from the store; or when carrying something big and heavy – in all these and other instances in which there is a chance of the sleeves going up and the arm or any part of the body becoming exposed, women must be extra cautious (to ensure that those parts which must be covered, remain covered) .

112 – Question: What is the extent of the Islamic hijab for women? For this purpose, does the wearing of clothing that is long and loose fitting, with pants and a scarf suffice? Essentially, what are the basics in the clothing and covering that a woman must observe in front of others?

Answer: It is wajib that the entire body of a woman, with the exception of the face and hands up to the wrist, is covered from non-Mahram men. The clothing that has been mentioned, if it covers that part which is wajib, then it is not a problem; but it is better to wear a chador2. One must also refrain from that clothing which draws the attention of non-Mahram men. ABKLMST

Answer: It is wajib that the entire body of a woman is covered from non-Mahram men, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the face and hands must also be covered. The clothing that has been mentioned, if it covers that part which is wajib, then it is not a problem; but it is better to wear a chador. One must also refrain from that clothing which draws the attention of non-Mahram men. G

113 – Question: Is it allowed to wear a mantou 3 and pants in which the shape of the body is visible, in the presence of non-Mahram men?

Answer: From the point of hijab and covering, it is sufficient, but in the event that showing the shape of the body would lead to lust or corruption, then it must be covered. AKLMS

Answer: If it does not arouse or excite (others), and there is no corruption (in wearing it), and in the event that it is not considered as a zinat, then it is not a problem. L

Answer: In the event that it draws the attention of others (non-Mahram men), then it is not permitted. G

114 – Rule: Women are not permitted to raise their sleeves (to show their arms) to non-Mahram men in order to get an injection, have their blood pressure checked, taking of the pulse, or for any other reason, except in the case of necessity. ABGKLMST

115 – Question: I am a woman who must have an injection everyday and there is a clinic near my house in which a man gives the injections. However, there is another clinic that is further away in which a woman also gives the injection, but because it is far away, I must travel by car (to get to it). Am I allowed to go to the man to have the injection?

Answer: It is not allowed, except in the case of necessity. ABGKLMST

116 – Question: Are women allowed to go to a male doctor without investigating and inquiring if there is a female doctor available or not?

Answer: It is not allowed. AGKL

Answer: In the event that it is an emergency, it is not a problem

117 – Question: In our city, there is a female doctor and a male one, but the male doctor is more specialized and experienced. Is it allowed for women to go to the male doctor?

Answer: In the event that the female doctor can not treat the illness, then it is not a problem. ABGKLMT

Answer: In the event that the male doctor can treat the patient better, then it is not a problem. S

B) Rules Related to Wearing Socks

118 – Question: Is it allowed to wear thick socks in which the shape of the foot is visible in front of non-Mahram men, or not?

Answer: In the event that there is no corruption related to it, and the skin of the feet does not show, then it is not a problem. AKLMS

Answer: If it leads to corruption and sin, then it is not permitted. B

Answer: In addition to this, the socks must not be of the type that would be considered as a zinat. T

119 – Rule: Wearing of thin, see-thru socks in which the skin of the feet is visible is not considered as covering, and therefore, women must refrain from wearing these kinds of socks in the presence of non-Mahram men. ABGKLMST

120 – Question: There are some women who wear pants, and then pull their socks over top of the pants in such a way that the shape of the bottom of their legs show – what is the ruling for wearing socks in this manner?

Answer: It is not a problem. KLMS

Answer: In the event that it leads others to excitement or pleasure, then it is not allowed. A

Answer: If it leads to sin or corruption, then it is not allowed. B

Answer: In the event that it does not lead to falling into sin and there is no corruption, it is not a problem. G

121 – Question: What is the ruling for wearing flashy, repelling-coloured clothing, and clothing that draws the attention of others, in places where non-Mahram men are present, such as universities, stores, etc…

Answer: With the assumption that the clothing is arousing, it is haram. AKS

Answer: Although it is not a problem, however, Muslims must maintain their dignity even in their (type of) clothing. B

Answer: With the assumption that the clothing is arousing, and leads one to corruption, it is haram. G

Answer: If the clothing of the woman is clothing that is considered as zinat, then it is wajib to cover it from the view of non-Mahram men, in the same way that it is wajib to cover the body from their view. T

C) Rules Related to the Chador

122 – Question: Is it permitted to wear that type of chador that in the sunlight shows a bit of the body – in the presence of non-Mahram men?

Answer: In the event that the skin of the body does not show, and there is no fear of falling into sin, it is not a problem. K

Answer: In all instances, the woman must cover her self in such a way so as not to attract the attention of others (non-Mahram men). G

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed to wear such a chador. M

123 – Question: What is the ruling on wearing a chador made of Sherman (a type of fabric)?

Answer: In the event that according to the general population it not be considered as drawing the attention (of others), it is not a problem.

Note: Attracting of attention (of others) is of two types: sometimes in certain places, no women are known to wear this Sherman Chador, and in this case a woman wearing it, would attract the attention (of others), and thus, it is not allowed for her to wear it. In the second instance, there may be a place where women wear the Sherman Chador, however, one wears it in such a way so as to attract the attention of others, in which case this too is not permitted.

124 – Rule: It is not allowed to wear those types of chadors in which the hair or the shape of the hand of the woman shows through or to wear these types of chador in which their hair shows or the shape of their hands shows through, especially if there are non-Mahram men (in the house), and women must refrain from wearing these types of chador. ABGKLMS

125 – Question: If a woman wears a type of chador in which the shape of her body can be seen through it, but she is wearing enough clothing under the chador, for example, she is wearing a scarf on her head, socks, and long sleeve clothing, then is it Islamically permissible (to wear such a chador)?

Answer: In the event that the body (skin) can not be seen and by wearing such a chador there is no fear of corruption, then it is not a problem. ABGKLMS

Note: Those women who use chador as their hijab, in the following examples, must be extra careful of their covering:

1. At the time of buying and selling something with non-Mahram men; while fixing their chador in the presence of non-Mahram men; taking or giving things to them; working in the presence of non-Mahram men, whether it be in the house or outside of the house; washing clothes, dishes or anything else in the presence of non-Mahram men; setting the table and cleaning up after a meal, etc…

2. In all of the above mentioned examples, and those that are related to these, it is recommended that women should wear sufficient clothing underneath their chador, and that they make use of a scarf or maqnah. Also, they should wear “add-on sleeves” in the event that the clothing they are wearing under the chador is short sleeved so as to observe the complete hijab and to gain the pleasure of Allah (SWT).

126 – Question: If a close family member proposes to a girl but she does not accept his marriage proposal, then later on if these two meet each other, and in the event the man is still single, how should the girl act and behave in front of him? Should she observe more than that which wajib in her hijab or be extra careful while speaking to him or not?

Answer: One must keep away from all those actions that may lead to corruption and sins. AGK

Therefore: For example, according to the fatawa of the late Ayatullah Khomeini, if keeping the face and hands open leads the young man to look at her with the intention of lust, then she must cover her face and hands and if speaking to him leads him to falling into corruption, then she must also keep away from this.

D) Rules Related to Beautification (Zinat)

D) Rules Related to Beautification (Zinat)4

127 – Question: What is meant by beautification (zinat)?

Answer: Everything that the general public regards as beautification, and people refer to it as such. AGKL

128 – Question: If a woman applies surma – not with the intention of it being for beauty, but instead for the benefits that are in it, then in this case, must it be concealed from the view of non-Mahram men?

Answer: If the general population regard it as being a means of beautification then it must be concealed, whether one’s intention for using it is beautification, or not. AGKL

Answer: It would be considered as zinat. B

Answer: If she applies the surma in such a way that even old women or elderly women use it, then even if it is for beautification, it is not necessary to cover it from non-Mahram men. T

129 – Question: Must a woman who has had her eyebrows shaped (hair plucked from the eyebrows) cover them (in the presence of non-Mahram men) in order to observe the true Islamic hijab, or is she permitted to have them exposed?

Answer: She must cover them. AGK

Answer: If it is arousing or stimulating, then she must cover them, and in other than this, according to Ihtiyat (she must cover it). B

Answer: In the event that according to the general public it would be considered as a beautification, then it is necessary to cover it. L

Answer: If beautifying the face (either by plucking the eyebrows or having them shaped) is done in such a way that even elderly women perform it, then it is not necessary to cover it. T

130 – Rule: Women are allowed to cover only that part of the face or hands that has some beauty on it, and it is not wajib that the rest of the face (or hands) be covered. ALMT

Therefore: If a woman only has the bottom part of the eyebrows shaped, then she can just cover that part of her face with her scarf or chador; and in the event that the rest of her face does not have any beautification on it, then it is not a problem if that portion is exposed (without the zinat).

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, in all instances the face and hands must be covered from non-Mahram men, whether they have any beautification on them or not. G

Note: The following are some examples of beautification on the hands and that must be covered from non-Mahram men:

Bangle

Bracelet

Ring (even if it is one’s wedding ring)

Long finger nails

Nail polish

Henna

Certain types of watches which are worn as a means of beautification

Certain types of gloves which are worn as a means of beautification

The following are considered as beautification for the face:

Applying surma

Shaping of the eyebrows

Applying artificial eyebrows

Using any kind of makeup

Having a nose-ring (as is the custom is some cultures)

Earrings

Other than these, anything else that the general population (of that particular area) considers as beautification is also included and these must all be covered while in the presence of non-Mahram men.

131 – Question: Do plucking the eyebrows for women constitute beautification (zinat) or not? Also, if a woman has her eyebrows plucked, must she cover her face from the view of non-Mahram men?

Answer: If the general public considers it as a beautification, then it wajib to cover it from non-Mahram men. AL

Answer: Yes, it will be considered as zinat and it must be covered from non-Mahram men. G

Answer: If the beautification of the face is done in such a way that is common even among old women, then it is not wajib to cover it from non-Mahram men. T

132 – Rule: In the ruling concerning the covering of the face and hands while in the presence of non-Mahram men, in the event that one has any beautification on – there is no difference between the non-Mahram man being a family member or an outsider. ABGKLMT

Therefore: In gatherings, or when guests come to one’s house who are family members or otherwise, women must either refrain from applying any type of beautification on their face and hands, or else cover them in front of the non-Mahram men.

133 – Question: I am a woman who wears a wedding ring (that is very simple) and it is not for zinat, but rather for remembrance and loyalty to my husband. Is it wajib for me to cover this from non-Mahram men?

Answer: To wear any kind of ring is considered as zinat, and therefore it is wajib to cover it from the sight of non-Mahram men. AGK

Answer: If it is arousing or stimulating, then it must be covered and in other than this, according to Ihtiyat (it must be covered). B

Answer: It is not wajib to cover those rings that women usually wear on their hands, from the view of non-Mahram men. T

Answer: In the event that the general public consider it is a zinat, it is necessary to cover it. L

134 – Question: Is there any difference in the type of beautification? For example, if one applies a type of beautification that according to her own custom is considered as zinat, however, for another group of people, not only is it not considered as a zinat, rather it is taken as something repulsive or ugly, then must this type of zinat be concealed from non-Mahram men as well?

Answer: Beautifying one’s self is not related to beauty or ugliness, and anything that the general public considers as zinat must be covered from non-Mahram men. ABGKL

Answer: If the beautification on the face or hands is done in such a way that is common even among old women, such as shaping the eyebrows or applying surma, then it is not wajib for the woman to cover it from non-Mahram men. In other than this scenario, it is wajib to cover it (whether it is considered as beautiful or ugly). U

135 – Question: Is it allowed for men and women to put perfume on or make themselves smell nice by other means, in the event that the smell of it reaches non-Mahram?

Answer: There is no problem in applying perfume, but if the usage of it for the woman leads to corruption, arousal or stimulation of (non-Mahram men), then it is not allowed. AK

Question: If a woman applies perfume on herself for a non-Mahram man, is it necessary for her to perform a Ghusl?

Answer: In the event that putting the perfume on is to attract the attention of non-Mahram men, then it is a problem. G

Answer: In the above scenario, it is Mustahab for her to perform a Ghusl. L

136 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women must cover artificial or synthetic hair, whether it has been joined to one’s own hair or if it is a wig or hairpiece that has been placed on top of the head. Also it does not make a difference if this joined hair is that of a man or a woman. AGKL

Answer: It is wajib for a woman to cover (it) from non-Mahram men. B

Answer: If this action is considered as a beautification, then it is wajib for her to cover it from non-Mahram men. M

137 – Question: What is the ruling for a woman beautifying herself for other than her husband, in gatherings where there are only women present such as in weddings, or dinner invitations only for women?

Answer: In the event that non-Mahram men do not see her, it is not a problem. ABGKLMST

138 – Question: Is there a problem for women to wear shoes that make noise, such that when one walks, non-Mahram men can her the sound of them?

Answer: In the event that corruption can be associated with it, one must refrain from it. K

139 – Rule: If a woman knows that a non-Mahram man will look at her face or hands with the intention of lust, then even if she does not have any zinat on them, she must cover these parts from him. AGKLMS

Answer: In the event that is leads or helps to commit a sin, then it is wajib to cover (these two parts). B

140 – Rule: It is not allowed to keep the face and hands open with the intention of making others fall into sin. AGKLS

In the event that it helps to commit a sin, it is not allowed. B

141 – Rule: Old women who do not have the hope of marrying - in addition to their face and hands, can also keep a bit of their hair, hands up to the elbows, and the legs up to the knees open, in the front of non-Mahram men. S

142 – Rule: It is not allowed for a woman to go to a place where she knows that non-Mahram men will look at her with the intention of lust. AGK

In itself, going (to such a place) is not a problem, but she must observe the proper clothing so as to not make others fall into sin. B

E) Covering of a Woman in the Presence of Other Women

143 – Rule: A woman must cover her private parts from other women however it is not wajib to cover the rest of the body in front of them. ABGKLMS

144 – Rule: If a woman knows that other women will look at her body, face or hands with the intention of lust, then it is wajib for her to cover these parts from them. AGKLM

Therefore: In bathrooms, swimming pools, fitness or sports clubs, and beauty parlors, if a woman sees that other women are looking at her with the intention of lust, the she must immediately cover her body from them.

145 – Rule: It is haram for a woman to reveal her body with the intention of wanting other women to fall into sin. AGKLMS

That amount of the body that is wajib to cover is that (same) amount that is haram to keep uncovered, even if others will not fall into a haram act; butd those places that are not wajib to cover, if it leads or helps to commit a sin, then it becomes wajib to cover them. B

146 – Rule: It is wajib for a woman to cover her private parts from other women, even if they will not look at them with the intention of lust, except in the case of necessity. ABGKLMS

Therefore: Just as has been mentioned in the previous section on ‘looking’, women are not permitted to show their private parts to a doctor, unless it reaches to the stage of necessity. Even in the matter of birth control, it is not allowed to expose one’s private parts in front of a doctor, and one must refrain from this, except in the case of a necessity. Also in this ruling, it does not make a difference if the doctor is a woman either.

Note: Women must be cautious in places such as public showers that their private parts are covered, and it is also not allowed to wear thin, see-thru clothing in which one’s private parts are not covered properly. In addition, to have x-rays taken (of certain areas), or a sonograph of the womb, or have certain devices inserted into the womb or other related things, if it necessitates the exposing of one’s private parts in front of others, then it is not allowed and one must refrain from it (unless it is in the case of necessity).

F) Covering of a Woman in the Presence of Children

(Those who have reached the age of Mumayyiz or not)(Those who have reached the age of Mumayyiz or not)

147 – Rule: It is not wajib to cover any part of the body, even so far as the private parts, from a child (a girl or a Mahram or non-Mahram boy) who has not yet reached the age of Mumayyiz. ABGKLMST

148 – Rule: A woman must cover her private parts from a girl child who is Mumayyiz. ABGKLMS

149 – Rule: It is wajib for a woman to cover her private parts from a boy who is a Mumayyiz child and her Mahram. ABGKLMS

150 – Rule: In the event that the Mumayyiz child is a boy and a non-Mahram, then not only is it wajib for the women to cover their private parts from him, but according to Ihtiyat Wajib, she must also cover her entire body from him, with the exception of the face and hands. BKGS

According to Ihtiyat Mustahab, a woman should cover her body and hair from non-Baligh children who understands good and bad – meaning that he has reached to such a stage that his look would be with lust (meaning that he is Mumayyiz). However, it is not necessary for her to cover the face and hands. M

Clothing that is haram for Men and Women

1. Notorious Clothing

1. Notorious Clothing5

151 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed for men or women to wear notorious clothing. This means whether it be the type of clothing, type of stitching, its style, or its color or a combination of any of these. The same rule applies to the way of wearing the clothing as well. AKLM

Rather, it is haram to wear notorious clothing. BG

In the event that it leads to disgrace or degradation (of a person), then it is haram to wear it. ST

152 – Question: What is meant by notorious clothing?

Answer 1: That clothing whose material, color, the way it is sewn, or the way it is worn, is not common for that person to wear. BKL

Answer 2: That clothing that has certain qualities or characteristics that attract the attention of the general public, causing one to stand out in a crowd. K

Note: First of al, anything that is considered as clothing or a covering can be considered under this ruling, therefore it includes clothing such as shoes, a hat, a shirt, a skirt, a head scarf (for women), a Maqne, socks, pants, a Mantou, etc… If any of these are such that they could be classified as notorious clothing, then they are included in this ruling.

Secondly, it does not make a difference if the clothing is considered as notorious clothing due to the kind or type (of clothing) or the color of it, for example, those types of clothing whose color is loud or repulsive, or the style of clothing which is common among the Punks, or the manner in which it is worn.

Notorious clothing is that clothing which does not suit one’s appearance nor fits his status. A

Note: These explanations of notorious clothing are the same as those given by Ayatullah Khomeini in answer one above. The meaning of notorious clothing, is clothing that is not the usual type that a certain person wears. Thus, if an older person puts on clothing that is the style for children, or a person puts on clothing that is not fitting for his position or status, then that type of clothing would be referred to as notorious clothing. Therefore, even if wearing a chador in foreign countries, or wearing clothing (specific) to one area in another area draws the attention of others, but if these types of clothing signify the status of that person, then it is not a problem.

That clothing which is made of a certain kind of fabric or its color or it has been stitched in such a way that it is not common for that person to wear it and could lead to degradation or make him stand out, is referred to as notorious clothing. G

The meaning of notorious clothing is that clothing which may lead one to being proud or by wearing it, that person wants to be known as an ascetic or one who has renounced all worldly pleasures. Whether it is by means of the type of fabric, color, or the way it was stitched. However, if in actuality a person’s intention is to wear simple clothing and he does not have the intent of showing off, then not only is it permitted, but rather it is a worthy action. M

Notorious clothing is that clothing which is made of a type of fabric or color or the way in which it has been stitched is not common for that person to wear and it is degrading or a disgrace (to the one who wants to wear it). ST

2. Clothing which is Specific to One Gender

153 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed for women to wear clothing that is specific to men, and similarly, it is not allowed for men to wear clothing that is specific to women. KL

For a woman to wear clothing that is specific for a man and vice-versa is problematic. A

If a man wears clothing that is specific for a woman or a woman wears clothing that is specific for a man, then in the event that that clothing would be classified as ‘Notorious’, then it is haram (to wear such clothing); and in other than this scenario, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must refrain from wearing such clothing. B

It is haram for women to wear clothing that is specifically for men, and similarly, it is haram for men to wear clothing that is specifically for women. G

(Makarim): It is not a problem for a man to wear the clothing of a woman or for a woman to wear the clothing of a man, except in the event that it necessitates a haram action, in which it becomes not permissible. However, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab it is better that men and women do not wear clothing that is specific to the other gender.

If a man wears women’s clothing, or a woman wears men’s clothing, then in the event that that clothing becomes customary for them (they become known as one who wears that type of clothing), then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is haram to wear such clothing. S

154 – Rule: The meaning of clothing that is specific only to men is that clothing which is normally only worn by men; and specific clothing for women means that which is normally only worn by women. ABGKLMS

155 – Rule: The meaning of specific clothing includes all those things which are classified as clothing – whether it be something that it is visible when worn, for example a chador, skirt, scarf, or long socks – (where are not allowed) for men; or a coat and pants (suit-type), men’s shoes, etc… - (which are not common) for women. This also includes clothing which may not be visible – such as men wearing women’s under clothing or women wearing men’s under clothing. K

156 – Question: Further to what has been stated that according to Ihtiyat Wajib, men must not wear women’s clothing, and women must not wear men’s clothing, relating to this rule are some questions below:

Is this covering (of specific clothing) limited to being in public or even in (one’s) privacy is it problematic?

In the event that it is problematic, then would it also be a problem for men to wear women’s slippers if it is just inside the house?

Answer:

There is no difference between being in public or private. AK

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, if the clothing is considered as specific (for one sex), then it is not permitted. AK

In privacy, it’s being haram is an area of question. B

1. In privacy, the condition of it being haram is not known. G

There is no problem. G

157 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is haram to wear specific clothing, whether it is in privacy and there is no one else to see the person, or it is in public. Also, it does not make a difference in it being haram if the one who sees the person wearing the clothing is a man or woman, a Mahram or a non-Mahram. AK

In privacy, it’s being haram is an area of question. B

In the event that there is no one to see the person (in privacy), the condition of it being haram is not known. G

158 – Rule: It is not a problem to wear non-specific clothing, for example that clothing which the common people would regard as not being specific to men or women (such as pants, certain types of shirts, etc…). BGKLMST

Note: Just by a clothing being labeled “for women” or “for men”, does not make that clothing specific, rather, the usage of the clothing being only for men or women makes clothing that is specific (to that sex). As an example, the wearing of slippers in the house that the common people acknowledge to be worn by both men and women is not a problem, and thus either one of them can wear those slippers, even if they are referred to as women’s slippers or men’s slippers. However, if there is a pair of slippers that the common people acknowledge as only for women (such as slippers that were asked about in the previous question), then it is not allowed for men to wear them, even if it is only for a moment (such as to get something from the kitchen).

159 – Rule: It is not allowed, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, to wear specific clothing no matter what the reason is – whether it is for simply trying it on, playing or acting in the theatre, cinema, showing off or anything else. KL

It is a problematic area for a woman to wear clothing that is specific to men. A

It is haram for a man to wear clothing that is specifically for women and similarly for a woman to wear clothing that is specifically for men, however until the point that this is not regarded as notorious clothing, this being haram is an area to ponder upon. B

Question: Is it permitted for a woman who is acting in the theatre or in a play and is playing the role of a man, to wear the clothing of a man if she is performing in front of women?

Answer: As long as non-Mahram Men will not see her, it is not a problem. G

160 – Question: Are men allowed to use things of zinat that women usually wear – such as a ring, watch, bangle, belt, necklace, etc… keeping in mind that the wearing of clothing specific to women is not allowed for men?

Answer: One must refrain from wearing anything that goes against one’s character. A

Answer: It is haram for men and women to beautify themselves with that which is used as a beautifier for the opposite sex. B

Answer: It is not allowed for men to use any kind of beautification or clothing that is specific to women. G

Answer: If the man is considered to resemble a woman or the woman is considered to resemble a man, then it is not permitted. L

161 – Question: What is the ruling for a woman who cuts her hair short such that she resembles a man, and also what is the ruling for a man to grow his hair long such that he resembles a woman?

Answer: If it considered that the man resembles the woman or the woman resembles the man then it is not allowed. L

3. Arousing or Stimulating Clothing

162 – Rule: It is haram for a woman or a man to wear any type of clothing that the common people would consider as arousing or stimulating, or one that attracts the attention of non-Mahrams. ABGKL

It is problematic to wear clothing that can lead to degradation, loss of one’s self-respect or corruption. M

163 – Rule: Arousing or stimulating clothing can be due to its color, style, type of cloth, or any other thing. Thus, it is possible that a woman’s headscarf, mantou, maqnah or shoes are such that they attract the attention of non-Mahram Men and are stimulating. In these instances, it is not permissible to wear them. ABGKLM

Note: The meaning of arousing or stimulating is related to the type of clothing and not the person wearing it. Thus if according to the common people a certain type of clothing is considered as arousing, then it is not allowed to wear it, even if one or a few people would not be aroused or stimulated by it.

Therefore: Clothing such as certain types of gloves with lace, chador, a thin scarf with lace, things that hand (around a person’s neck) such as flowers, and other things of beautification such as gold stitching or lace stitching on the headscarf, chador or mantou, etc… or placing buttons on a specific part of the clothing, keeping the buttons of the clothing open even if underneath there may be clothing, etc… - all of these kinds of clothing, if they are considered as stimulating or arousing, or they attract the attention of others, then it is haram and one must refrain from wearing these (types of clothing).

164 – Question: Are men allowed to beautify their faces with make-up that women use? Also, are men allowed to pluck the hair under their eyebrows?

Answer: It is haram for a man and woman to beautify themselves with those things that are used by the opposite sex. B

Answer: It is problematic. G

Answer: If the man is considered to resemble a woman or a woman is considered to resemble a man, then it is not allowed. L

4. Usurped Clothing

165 – Rule: It is not allowed to wear clothing that has been usurped, and according to Islamic law, it is haram; and the Salat recited with this clothing will also be void. ABGKST

It is haram to wear usurped clothing, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, Salat recited with this clothing will also be void. LM

166 – Rule: If a type of clothing is made or purchased from money that was usurped, then it has the same ruling as usurped clothing and thus, the wearing of them is not allowed. ABGKLMS

167 – Rule: Even if a part of the clothing is usurped, then the wearing of it is not allowed either, even if it is just a single stitch, a button, a zipper or the lining of the material. ABGKLMS

168 – Rule: It is not allowed for a person who has Khums pending on him/her to buy any clothing from that money on which Khums has not yet been paid, since it will be considered as usurped, and the wearing of it is not allowed; also the Salat recited in it is void. (Except those who have received the permission of the Islamic Ruler, or his representative.) ABGKLMST

5. Clothing Specific to the Non-Muslims

169 – Rule: It is haram to wear that clothing which only the non-Muslims make use of. GKL

In the event that it endorses the non-Muslims or makes them powerful, then it is not allowed. A

According to Ihtiyat, one must refrain from imitating the non-Muslims. B

Therefore: It is not permitted for a Muslim man or woman to wear clothing that is commonly worn by Punks, clergymen of the Church, Rabbis, the Hindus, or other groups of non-Muslims.

170 – Rule: There is no problem in wearing that clothing which is common to both Muslims and non-Muslims. BGKLMST

171 – Question: What is the view of Islam on the necktie?

Answer 1: The necktie is the practice of the Christian religion, which has unfortunately become widespread amongst the Muslims. G

Answer 2: The necktie is one of the symbols of the Christians, and it is incumbent on the Muslims to refrain from using it. G

Answer: The necktie is related to and is one of the symbols of the Christians, thus, it is better that the Muslims refrain from wearing it, even though it is no longer prevalent among the Muslims as being a symbol for the Christians. L

  • 1. In the following rulings, the spouse is an exception.
  • 2. The Chador is the type of ‘hijab’ that is commonly worn by Iranian women and consists of a large, usually black cloth wrapped around the body.
  • 3. A long overcoat type covering for women that is commonly worn in Iran.
  • 4. It should be noted that the meaning of Zinat refers to those decorations and beautification that a woman applies to herself, and not that which is natural. (Translator)
  • 5. Please note that the term Libas al-Shuhrah has been translated here as Notorious Clothing for lack of a better term in English. Please refer to the list of definitions at the end of this book for a detailed explanation.

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