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Rules relating to marriage and its ceremonies

بسم الله الرّحمن الرّحيم

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ .

“And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.”

al-Qur’an · Surah al-Rum · Ayah 21

Specific Rules of Marriage and Ceremonies

In this section, those rules those are necessary to be followed at the time of the proposal and marriage will be discussed. Thus, in the introduction of this section, the rules of investigating and inquiring about the spouse to be, and their families; followed by the laws of buying the necessary items for the wedding; invitations; preparations for the wedding; and finally the rules which are related to the gatherings of men and women (in relation to the wedding) will be covered.

225 – Rule: If as a result of not having a wife, one will fall into sin, then it is wajib to get married. GKLMST

If due to not having a wife, one will either commit a haram act or fears that he will commit a haram act; or if because of not having a wife, there will be some detrimental effect on his body, then it is wajib to get married. A

Therefore: If someone knows that in the event that he does not get married he will fall into sin, such as looking at non-Mahram in a haram way, looking at (prohibited) photographs or movies, or one may become forced to or has no other way out but to sexually please himself (masturbation) or may fall into having illicit sexual relations with non-Mahram, then it is wajib to get married.

The youth must pay extra special attention to the fact that the same Allah (SWT) who up until today has provided us with our spiritual and material needs, if we follow His commands in order to obtain His pleasure, then, He (SWT) will shower even more blessings than before on His servants, and certainly, He will remove other obstacles from a person’s path.

Make a deal with Allah (SWT) and by getting married, keep yourselves away from sins, and seek the pleasure and blessings of Allah (SWT). Rest assured that He will keep make you happy and make you successful.

226 – Rule: It is Mustahab to get married, even if one does not fear falling into sin by not being married. ABGKLMST

227 – Rule: It is Mustahab that a girl who is baligh (meaning she has reached to the age that she must fulfill her responsibilities to Allah (SWT)) should hurry to find a spouse. GKLMT

In the same way (it is mustahab) in giving (marrying) a girl to a boy who needs to get married. M

228 – Rule: It is Mustahab that the expenditures for the wedding, party and the dowry be a minimum amount. KGLM

Research and Investigation about the Spouse

Research about either one of the spouses-to-be takes place either in a direct or an indirect way. The meaning of direct is that both the man and woman ask things directly from one another; and indirect refers to the inquires one makes about the other person from someone else (such as a friend, a family member, a neighbor, a co-worker, etc…).

A) Rules of Indirect Investigation

229 – Rule: It is permitted to do research and investigation about either one of the spouses-to-be from any person, even if it necessitates finding out about his or her faults or those of the respective family. AGKLMST

230 – Rule: It is not a problem to investigate about the defects of either one of the spouses-to-be or their families, if it is related to the marriage, and it does not have the same rule as that type of investigating that is forbidden. AGK

Therefore: One is only allowed to investigate those defects which are related to the marriage and knowing the other party (in relation to marital life); and in all other instances, it is not allowed to research into someone’s life with the excuse of marriage.

B) Rules of Direct Investigation

231 – Rule: Each one of the spouses-to-be is allowed to directly question the other one about themselves, with the condition that this investigating does not involve any haram acts. ABGKLMST

Therefore: It is haram for the two to talk with lust, or for them to be alone in a secluded place, or for them to look at each other with the intention of lust, or to touch one another, and thus they must refrain from these things.

232 – Rule: Each of the spouses-to-be is allowed to look at the body of the other with the aim of investigating, provided that the following conditions are met:

The look is not with the intention of lust.

The marriage will be determined by this look.

There is no other obstacle between these two in getting married. BKLS

It is not permitted in any way to look at the body of a non-Mahram, even if it is for the purpose of marriage. A

Rather, such a look is actually Mustahab so as to prevent any problems after marriage, and it is not necessary to seek the permission of the woman. B

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, the man can only look at the woman’s face and hands, and that too in the amount that will determine her beauty or ugliness. G

A man is only permitted to look at the face, hands, hair, neck and a small amount around these areas, and he can also look at the shape of her body from on top of the clothing. M

According to the First Condition (mentioned above):

233 – Rule: It is not allowed for either of them to look at the other with the intention of lust. However, if they know that after looking, unintentionally, lust will come about, then it is not a problem. GKLMS

234 – Rule: It is better that this looking is done on top of thin or see-thru clothing. K

According to the Second Condition (mentioned above):

235 – Rule: This looking must be the last step of the investigation that both of the spouses-to-be perform. BKLMS

Note: Both of the spouses-to-be, prior to this, must have performed the other necessary investigations, and the marriage is only halted due to this looking such that if they truly like each other (looks wise), then the marriage will take place.

236 – Rule: If the marriage will not be determined by this looking, or it is such that it does not really make a difference for the person, or he is not ignorant of the matter (such that he may have found out from other means about her), then one is not allowed to look at the body of the other person. BGKLMS

According to the Third Condition (mentioned above):

237 – Rule: There must not be any other obstacle in the marriage. BKLMS

Therefore: For example, if the girl’s father does not give her permission for the marriage, or the man can not marry the woman at the present time, or the woman has a husband (even if she has the intention of getting divorced later on), or in other cases such as these, neither one of them is allowed to look at the body of the other.

238 – Question: Is it allowed for a man to look at the photograph of a woman that he intends to marry with the intention of wanting to see her beauty? What about in the event that the woman has not completely observed her hijab? Also, what if a man looks at many pictures (of various women) in order to choose a spouse from among them?

Answer: If it not with the intention of lust, then it is not a problem. BK

Answer: This has the same ruling of looking at the photographs of others. A

Note: The ruling of looking at photographs was previously stated in Chapter III, and one may refer to that.

Answer: If it not with the intention of enjoyment, then it is not a problem. However, to look at several photographs in order to choose a spouse, if they are without the proper hijab, then it is a problem. G

Rules on Istikhara

239 – Rule: If a person performs an istikhara for an act, for example, marriage, it is not wajib to act upon the results of that istikhara. K

It is not wajib to perform an istikhara, but in the same way acting in contrary to the result of the istikhara is not permitted. G

240 – Question: What I wanted to know is that: Is the practice of istikhara by the tasbih beads, or the Qur’an or the istikhara by Dhat al-Riqah 1 from the view point of Islam, in matters of importance in one’s life such as marriage, or making an important decision, correct or not?

Answer: There is no problem consulting with Allah (SWT) and performing the istikhara according to the ways that have been mentioned, to dispel any confusion. K

241 – Question: Is it appropriate to perform the Istikhara? Also, one time an incident came up which was very ‘good’ - we performed the Istikhara, but it came out ‘bad’. Does the Istikhara have any basis or foundation that we should rely upon?

Answer: It (the Istikhara) is not one of the principal beliefs that one must believe in, and in the instance of wanting to remove doubt, it is not a problem if performed with the intention of it being accepted. K

Answer: It is not allowed to go against the result of the Istikhara. G

242 – Question: I had gone to propose to a girl, and after completing the preliminary stages and questioning each other and finding out about one another, they (the families) and others acknowledged that we are appropriate (for one another), but still her father went and had an Istikhara performed and it came out bad. Even though we say that good jobs and acts do not need to be performed with an Istikhara, he replied by saying that, ‘I will not turn my back on the outcome of the Istikhara.’ Please inform us, is this Istikhara appropriate or not?

An Istikhara does not oblige you. K

It is not allowed to go against the outcome of the Istikhara. G

Rules of the Engagement Period

243 – Rule: If the meaning of engagement is just that a man and woman have the intention of getting married to each other but no kind of marriage contract has taken place between them, then the man and woman are non-Mahram to one other, and there is no difference between them and other non-Mahram. ABGKLMST

Therefore: Looking at one another with the intention of lust; holding hands or any form of bodily contact; being secluded in a private place (with those conditions that were stated in the section of Rules of Socializing); not observing hijab and sufficient clothing in front of each other; socializing and intermingling in the way that a husband and wife normally do with each other; and in summary, any kind of relations that are haram between two non-Mahram (will apply here), and thus both of them must refrain from these things (if no Islamic marriage contract has taken place).

Temporary Marriage (Mut’a) before the Permanent Marriage

244 – Rule: It is not a problem to recite the temporary marriage between the spouses-to-be with the permission of the woman’s guardian. ABGKLMST

245 – Question: Before the permanent marriage, are a boy and girl permitted to read the temporary marriage contract for themselves, without the permission of the girl’s father (guardian)?

Answer: If the girl is a virgin then it is not correct to read the temporary marriage contract without her father’s permission. In any other instance, it is not necessary to have the father’s permission. ABGKLST

Answer: A girl who has reached the age of puberty and is mature - meaning she looks after her own life, in the event that she is a virgin, then according to Ihtiyat, she must get the permission of her father or grandfather. M

246 – Rule: In the event that a temporary marriage contract has been recited, then even if after the end of its period a permanent marriage is not read, the mother of the girl will remain the Mahram of the man for as long as she lives. BGKLMST

247 – Rule: If the couple wishes to have a permanent marriage contract recited before the time of the completion of the temporary marriage once, then the man must forgive the remainder of the period of time (of the temporary marriage) to the woman. AGKLMST

248 – Rule: In the event that the man does not forgive the remainder of the period (whether it be out of ignorance of the rule or due to forgetfulness), and the couple have the permanent marriage contract recited, then the permanent marriage will be void, and after the completion of the time (of the temporary marriage contract), they must have the permanent marriage recited again. AGK

249 – Question: Five years ago, before I got married to my wife, prior to having our permanent marriage contract recited, we became Mahram by having the temporary marriage contract recited for a period of two months. However, one month after the temporary marriage, we recited the permanent marriage and up until now, we are living with one another. Is our permanent marriage contract correct?

Answer: In the event that the remainder of the period of the temporary marriage was forgiven (or given back to the wife), the permanent marriage is correct; however in any other instance, you must have the permanent marriage contract recited again. AGK

Rules of Buying Things (Preparations for the Wedding)

250 – Rule: It is not allowed to purchase any kind of gold for the groom with the intention of having him use it, whether it is a ring, cufflinks, watch, etc… ABGKLMS

In the above examples, the actual transaction is correct (from the viewpoint of Islam), however, it is not permitted for the man to wear anything made of yellow gold. T

251 – Rule: White gold does not share the same ruling as yellow gold, and thus, buying that for the groom is not a problem. K

In the event that white gold is a metal other than yellow gold, it is not a problem. AGLM

As long as it (white gold) is not from the same metal as yellow gold or from the same mineral (as yellow gold), or the (gold) experts do not consider it as gold, then it is not a problem. B

252 – Rule: It is not allowed to purchase any kind of clothing for the groom that is 100% pure silk, with the intention of him wearing it. ABGKLMS

In the above example, the actual transaction is correct (from the viewpoint of Islam), however, it is not permitted for the man to wear clothing made of pure silk. T

Therefore: It is not permitted to buy any kind of clothing, such as a shirt, underclothing, clothing that is worn around the house, socks, etc… that is 100% silk, for the man.

253 – Rule: It is not allowed to buy something with money on which Khums has become wajib on until the Khums has been taken out on it, except if one has received the permission of the Islamic Judge or his representative. AGKLM

If something is purchased with money that has not had Khums paid on it, and in the event that the seller was a Shi’a Ithna-Asheri Muslim, then apparently the transaction is correct, but Khums is applicable on that thing which has been purchased, and it is not necessary to get the permission and authorization of the Islamic Judge. ST

254 – Rule: If one (who does not pay attention to the previous rule) buys something with money on which Khums was obligatory on, then he must obtain the permission of the Islamic Judge or his representative (for the money that he has spent). In the event that he gives permission, the transaction is correct, and if he does not give permission, then 1/5 of the transaction is void. AGKLM

It is not necessary to get the permission of the Islamic Judge, but that which was purchased has Khums applicable on it. ST

255 – Rule: It is not allowed to purchase any kind of notorious clothing for the groom or bride. ABGKLMS

The transaction is correct, although it is not permitted to make use of the ‘notorious clothing’. T

256 – Rule: It is not allowed to purchase clothing for the groom that is specific to for women, or clothing that is specific to men for the bride and one must refrain from buying these things. ABGKLMS

The transaction is correct, although it is not permitted for men to wear the clothing of women, or women to wear the clothing of men. T

257 – Rule: It is haram to buy any kind of clothing for the bride that is arousing, with the aim of her wearing it in front of non-Mahram men. ABGKL

The transaction is correct, although it is not permitted to wear such clothing. T

Therefore: If the groom knows that in the wedding ceremony, non-Mahram men will look at the bride (for example if there is a mixed gathering), then buying a dress for the bride that is arousing or stimulating, or one in which a part of her body is not covered properly, is not allowed.

258 – Rule: It is not allowed to buy a shaver or shaving cream for the groom, with the intention that the groom will shave off his beard. ABGKLMST

Note: It is not a problem if the shaver is purchased for a lawful purpose.

259 – Rule: The transaction that involves buying and selling leather that is imported (or brought in) from other than an Islamic country, or that is taken from the hands of a Kafir is void, unless the person knows that the items are from animals that have been slaughtered according to Islamic law, in which case, the buying and selling of them is not a problem. ABKT

Even if it is bought from a Kafir in an Islamic market, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the transaction is void. G

If it is possible that the leather has either been imported from an Islamic country, or it has been taken from the hands of a Kafir but from an animal that was slaughtered in the Islamic manner, then it is permitted to buy and sell such a thing. LS

According to Ihtiyat, the buying and selling of leather that has come from non-Islamic countries or which has been taken from a Kafir, is a void transaction. M

Therefore: Buying anything that is made of leather such as: shoes, a belt, strap of a watch, a purse, a bag, etc… that comes from a non-Islamic country is void, unless the person knows that the country (where it was made) imports its leather from Islamic countries.

Rules of Invitations (Inviting People)

260 – Rule: It is not allowed to invite someone that one knows in the event that he or she comes, will commit sins or things that go against the laws of Islam, unless they keep an eye on them so that they do not commit a sin. AGK

Therefore: It is not allowed to invite women or men that will initiate vain or trivial things in the wedding gatherings.

To invite them is haram. B

Question: Is it permitted to invite someone that one knows if he/she attends, will indulge in sins and evil acts?

Answer: It is wajib upon all Muslims to prevent and stop the spreading of corruption. T

261 – Rule: It is haram to invite magicians with the purpose of having them perform magic in the gatherings and one must refrain from this. GK

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed to perform magic, and one must refrain from inviting magicians. A

All forms of magic are haram - except if the work itself is permissible and it is not counted as vain, and the aim of it (the magic) is not something useless, rather it is logical and lawful. B

Question: Is it permitted to invite magicians with the purpose of having them perform magic at a gathering?

Answer: Magic includes: demonstrating or passing something off that is not real as real by performing an action very quickly, which normally people would not perform. If this kind of work has an unlawful side, such as causing harm to a believer, then it is haram. It is also not permissible to invite one to perform these types of acts; and in other than this, it is not haram and similarly, it is not a problem to invite them (if these things are not being done). S

Magic and slight of hand, even if the person performing these things announces to the people that what he is doing is not real, is still not free from doubt and the believers must stay away from such things. L

It is wajib upon all Muslims to prevent and stop the spreading of corruption. T

262 – Question: What is the ruling for watching magicians in the following scenarios:

Live performances in the presence of the magician?

On the television?

Answer: In both scenarios, it is not haram. BT

Answer: Performing magic is not free from doubt, and the believers must stay away from such things. L

263 – Rule: It is also haram to give money to magicians for their performance. AKGL

Note: According to the fatawa of most of the Maraja, magic is not allowed; similarly to invite one or a group of people to perform this haram action, is also not allowed.

In the event that the magician is performing haram acts, then it is also haram to give him money, and if he is not performing haram acts, then it is not haram (to give him money). S

264 – Rule: It is haram to invite music performers to perform, regardless whether it is a gathering for women or men. ABGKLMST

265 – Rule: It is not a problem to invite poets with the intention of having them read poetry, or those poems in praise of the Prophet of Islam and his Family, as long as it is not in a manner of singing. ABGKLMST

266 – Rule: It is not a problem to invite the Ahl al-Kitab to these kinds of gatherings, unless one knows that if they come they will commit acts that go against the Sacred Laws of Islam, or that they will not obey the rules of the religion, in which case, it is not allowed to invite them. AGK

267 – Rule: It is not allowed to go to gatherings in which there are vain and futile acts taking place, except in a case in which one will try to prevent the others from sin. AGKL

Therefore: It is not allowed to go to gatherings in which one knows that the people attending, or the hosts, will not practice the religion; or they may perform vain acts; or there is a mixed gathering in which the laws of the religion will not be observed, even if it is the wedding ceremony of a close relative.

268 – Rule: It is not allowed to go to gatherings in which there are vain and futile acts taking place, even if one knows that he or she will not become involved in something haram. AGKL

269 – Rule: It is not allowed to invite a male photographer or videographer to take the movie or photos of the bride and groom or other non-Mahram, in the event that one has knowledge that they will not be observing their proper clothing. AGK

It is wajib upon all Muslims to prevent those things that will aid in the spreading of corruption. T

270 – Question: Is it allowed to take part in gatherings in which there are vain and futile acts taking place, only to eat the food there?

Answer: In the event that the area has been cleared of all haram things, then it is not a problem to take part (in that gathering) simply for eating. L

271 – Question: Are we allowed to accept an invitation of non-Muslims and go to their house, keeping in mind that when you go to someone’s house you will have to invite them to your house as well. In the event that we are permitted to go, is it permitted to eat their food other than meat (such as tea and sweets) that they may serve or not?

Answer: It is not a problem to accept their invitation if you have a (good) reason, but one must refrain from eating things that are known to be Najis (or that one has knowledge are Najis). G

272 – Question: If a woman takes part in, or goes to a wedding ceremony without the permission of her husband, but has the permission of her father because it is possible that by the wife not attending the gathering, it will cause sorrow among the hosts, but the husband does not know the reason why the wife is attending the wedding, then in this situation, is it against the rules of the religion for the wife to attend the wedding ceremony (since she did not have the permission of her husband)?

Answer: It is haram for the wife to leave the house without the permission of her husband and it does not matter if the woman’s father has given her permission. G

Rules Relating to the Preparation of Things for the Wedding Ceremony

273 – Rule: It is haram to plan any kind of vain and futile acts. ABGKLMST

274 – Rule: It is not allowed to prepare or arrange for a room, hall or any kind of atmosphere or surroundings, in which vain or futile acts will take place, with the intention of having sins committed (such as setting up an area for dancing or a musical performance). ABGKLMST

Overall Rules

275 – Rule: It is not allowed to prepare anything that can be used for a haram act, if it is with the intention of using it for something haram. ABGKLMST

276 – Rule: It is not allowed to purchase, borrow, etc… cassettes or musical instruments for entertainment (that are haram). ABKLMST

It is not allowed at all to prepare anything for vain acts. G

277– Rule: It is haram to decorate the car with flowers, or honk the horn in the streets of the city, if it draws the attention of non-Maharim towards the bride or other women who have beautified themselves, or if it disturbs the people. GKMT

Rules Relating to the Wedding Party

Dancing

278 – Rule: It is not allowed for men to dance, except if one wants to dance for his wife. K

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, a man must not dance even if it is for his wife. A

It is a problem for men to dance in gatherings of men, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must refrain from it. B

It is not allowed for a man to dance for any reason, even for his wife. G

It is not a problem to dance for those of the same sex as long as nothing haram is involved. L

The actual act of dancing is not haram, unless it is associated with a haram act. T

279 – Question: Is it permitted for a man to dance for his wife?

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted. A

Answer; It is not permitted. G

Answer: It is not a problem. KL

Answer: It is not a problem, unless it is associated with a haram act. T

280 – Question: What is the definition of dancing?

Answer: Any action that the general public would consider as dancing. BGKLMST

281 – Rule: In the prohibition of dancing for men, there is no difference in the types or ways it is performed. AGK

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted for a man to dance, and in this ruling it does not make a difference as to what type of dancing it is. B

The actual act of dancing is not haram unless it is associated with a haram act, and in this ruling it does not make a difference as to what type of dancing it is. LT

Therefore: There is no difference whether the dancing is specific to a region or country, or one that may take place in various types of gatherings, wedding gatherings or any other kind of dancing.

282 – Rule: Similarly in the prohibition of dancing, it does not make any difference if the men dance in a group or alone; with musical instruments or without; and whether the on-lookers are non-Mahram or not. AGK

Dancing, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, in its entirety is a problem and it must be avoided. B

If the dancing is in the presence of non-Mahram, or it is accompanied by music or is associated with any other haram act, then it is not permitted. LT

283 – Question: What is the ruling for a man to dance in private where there is no one else to see him?

Answer: Dancing in every way is a problem. A

Answer: Dancing in every form is not permitted and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it must be avoided. B

Answer: This dancing comes from the same root as vain and futile amusements. G

Answer: In the event that it is not associated with a haram act, then dancing in itself is not a problem. LT

284 – Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted for women to dance anywhere, whether it is at wedding parties, birthdays, etc… and the only exception is the dancing of the woman for her husband. GK

Therefore: Women are not permitted to dance at wedding parties, etc… even if non-Mahram men are not present.

Note: In some of the books of questions and answers from the late Ayatullah Khomeini that have been printed, there is a ruling that says, ‘It is not clear whether it is haram for women to dance in the presence of other women’ has been mentioned. These questions, along with the ruling ‘It is not permitted, according to Ihtiyat Wajib’, are no different from each other. Thus, sometimes a Mujtahid may not be completely sure if a specific act is forbidden and in that ruling he will express his opinion as an Ihtiyat Wajib.

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women are not permitted to dance even for their husbands. A

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, women are not permitted to dance even in gatherings of other women. B

Dancing in itself is not haram, unless it is associated with a haram act. LT

285 – Question: Is it permitted for women to dance in wedding parties in the event that only her Maharim are present?

Answer: It is not permitted. ABGK

Answer: It is not permitted unless the (only) one who is watching is her husband. T

Therefore: It is not permitted for women to dance in those specific gatherings that take place before the reading of the marriage contract and those that take place after the wedding, even if those who are taking part are her sister, brother, mother, aunt, or any other close family members.

286 – Question: What is the ruling for a woman dancing in private such that there is no one who can see her?

In its entirety, dancing is problematic. A

It is from the same root of vain and futile acts. G

287 – Rule: In the rulings which state that dancing is forbidden, there is no difference in the type of dancing, and any action or movement that the general public would consider as dancing (except for one’s husband), is not permitted. GK

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, all forms of dancing are forbidden - even for one’s husband, and in this ruling there is no difference between the various types of dancing. A

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted for a woman to dance in women’s gatherings, and in this ruling, there is no difference between the various types of dancing. B

In itself, dancing is not a problem, unless it is associated with a haram act, and in this ruling there is no difference between the various types of dancing. LT

Music

288 – Rule: It is not allowed for men or women to play or to listen to entertaining music, even if it with an instrument other than a musical one such as a pail, drum, etc… ABGKLST

289 – Rule: It is not allowed to play cassettes that have entertaining music on them in men’s gatherings. BGKLST

290 – Question: Please inform us what is meant by entertaining music?

Answer: Music that is used in vain and gatherings of amusement. BGKST

291 – Question: Please inform us how to differentiate between music that is entertaining music and music that is not, especially since the common people differ concerning one particular type of music. Those who used to listen to music in the past for example, would say that it is entertaining music, and others that have not heard that type of music will say that it is not entertaining music; in either scenario, what is one’s responsibility in this difference? Is it permitted to hear such types of music?

Answer: The basis of determining entertaining music is either one’s own certainty that that kind of music is entertaining music, or else one can refer to the common people. In the event that one is in doubt, it is not a problem to listen to it. ABKLMS

Answer: It is not allowed to listen to anything which may be considered as music, whether it is entertaining music or not. G

Answer: The basis of determining entertaining music is either one’s own certainty or those who have knowledge (of music) inform him. Notwithstanding, in the event that someone else does not tell them something that contradicts the speech of those who have knowledge (regarding music). However, if the common people have a difference in regards to a type of music such that the person doubts whether it is entertaining music or not, then in this case, listening to it, according to, Ihtiyat Wajib, is not permitted. T

292 – Question: What is the meaning of entertaining music?

Answer: Entertaining music is that which changes a person’s mental state into one that is not normal, and brings about pleasure and joy. L

293 – Question: Some of the music that is played by the Radio and TV of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company is the same music that was played at the time of the despotic rule of the Shah, and some of it is the music that has been taken from films from abroad, and yet another type of the music played is that in which the vocals have been taken out and it (too) was played at the time of the Shah – please inform us which of these are permissible, and which of them are haram?

Answer: Music that is entertaining music is haram (even if played by the Iranian Broadcasting Company), but as for music that one is doubtful about, is not a problem (to listen to). BKLMS

Answer: It is haram to listen to any type of music, whether it is played by the Iran Broadcasting Company or otherwise. G

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must keep away from music which one has doubts about. T

294 – Question: Some of the songs, which are played by the Iranian Broadcasting Company, have fast tunes which take a person out of his ‘normal’ state. What is the ruling on listening to such types of music? What is the ruling on those types of music such as those with lyrics about Shahid Mutahhari and others that cause one to fall into a state of sorrow? Also, what is the ruling on making such types of music?

Answer: Listening to or making any type of music that is entertaining music is not permitted. The basis for it to be haram is not that which makes one happy or sad – rather, the basis for it being haram is whether it is entertaining or not. ABKMLST

Answer: Listening or playing music is haram in its entirety. G

295 – Rule: It is not a problem to listen to or compose ‘War Songs’, or music that is used at the time of war or ‘Azadari – in summary, whatever type of music that is not considered as entertaining music that would change one’s mental state (is allowed). ABKMST

Answer: Listening or playing music is haram in its entirety. G

296 – Question: If a person does not get stimulated or aroused by listening to music, then what is the ruling on him listening to such types (of music)?

Answer: The basis for music being haram is that which the general public consider as entertaining music or otherwise, and it does not matter if the individual becomes stimulated or not (by listening to it). ABKLMST

Answer: Listening to music is haram in its entirety. G

General Rules

Therefore, listening to or producing any type of entertaining music is haram, whether because of that (entertaining music), one would become stimulated or not, and whether one would gain pleasure from it or not. It makes no difference if the music brings one happiness or sadness; whether it is traditional music or otherwise; Iranian or non-Iranian; whether it be in a wedding ceremony or anywhere else.

In the event that the music is not entertaining music, then it is not a problem to listen to or compose it. If a certain type of music is doubtful (one does not know if it is entertaining music or not), then it is not a problem for one to listen to or compose it.

297 – Question: Is it permissible to listen to certain types of music with an intention that we are listening to it without the intention of it being a vain and futile act? For example, music which is said to be good to calm and soothe the body, or music that some doctors recommend (their patients to listen to) for healing, or music that has been composed for the war in which there is no intention of vain and futile acts?

Answer: In all instances, as long as the music is not entertaining music, then it is not a problem to listen to it. ABKLMST

Answer: It is haram to listen to any sound that the common people would consider as music. G

298 – Rule: It is not permissible to compose any type of entertaining music with any musical instrument, whether it be for a wedding ceremony or any other type of gathering; whether it be for men or women; or whether it is made by men or women. ABGKLMST

299 – Question: I usually watch television programs and with me are children from age 5 up to 20, both girls and boys, students in school and those in the hawza. Sometimes, I see things on the television that go against the laws of Islam, and since I do not want to see the Islamic culture and ideals of the children go bad, or that the children mix haram and halal, or confuse bad from good, I point out (the lawful and prohibited) to them. However, some people are very rude to me and tell me that Imam Khomeini (may he rest in peace) considered all of the television programs as being permissible (halal). Please inform me, that as far as seeing non-Mahram women who are dressed up, laughing and playing, and the music that is being played – what is one’s responsibility?

Answer: Still (today), the television and radio programs are not 100% Islamic, and amongst these (programs) there are those that are not permissible, which, if special attention is paid to them, can be corrected. However, it is necessary that one’s interaction with the youth and young adults be such that their conviction in the actual principles of the Islamic Republic are not caused to waver, since these principles are the protection of the fundamentals of Islam and Shi’ism. L

It is known that just as in the beginning of Islam, all of the rules of Allah, step by step, were revealed and put into practice. In this system (Government of Iran) too, which was preceded by a despotic regime that was against Islam, we can not expect that all of the rules of Islam be put into practice in a short period of time. Rather, it is necessary that if this happens over a duration. It is hoped that in the near future, all of the laws of Islam will be realized under the Islamic Government. Thus, in those areas where one has certainty that something forbidden is taking place, one must refrain from it; and no harm or corruption will take place, then one should guide the others (to what is right) as well.

300 – Rule: It is not a problem to make music by other than those instruments that are used in vain and futile gatherings such as a copper basin, metal bowl, pail and … with the condition that the music is not entertaining music. ABKLMST

In all instances, composing music with instruments that are used for vain and futile gatherings is haram and with other than these (instruments) such as the copper basin and a metal bowl, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is also not permitted. G

301 – Rule: It is haram to listen to entertaining music and singing, however hearing these (without paying attention to them) is not a problem. T

Summary: Sometimes a person listens to music and is actually paying attention to it – this is haram; however sometimes a person simply hears the music but is not paying attention to it – in this instance, it is not a problem. An example of this is if music can be heard from the house of one’s neighbors; or someone who is listening to entertaining music drives by, but the person pays no attention to it – in these instance, even if the person hears it, it is not a problem.

302 – Question: You have mentioned that it is not a problem for a woman to dance for her husband. Is it permissible to listen to music while the dancing is taking place?

Answer: If the music is entertaining music, then it is not allowed. KLT

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permissible for a woman to dance even for her husband, just as it is not permissible to listen to entertaining music. A

Answer: It is completely not allowed to dance, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must refrain from this, even if it is a woman dancing for her husband. It is (also) not permissible to listen to entertaining music. B

It is completely not allowed to listen to music, however, it is permitted for a woman to dance for her husband. G

Reciting

303 – Rule: It is not a problem for men to recite, as long as it is not in the form of Ghina and there is no corruption involved in it. BKLMST

304 – Question: Please clarify to us what Ghina means. Does reciting something in a pleasing way constitute Ghina?

Answer: A pleasing sound, or reciting something in a pleasing way in itself does not constitute Ghina, rather Ghina can be explained as: prolonging the sound, along with a change in the pitch in such a way that is suited to vain and futile gatherings and assemblies of music and sinning. K

Answer: It can be explained as something that takes place in the gatherings of the people of corruption. B

Answer: Ghina is a sound in which the tone comes from the throat which the common people refer to as singing, and it causes excitement in the person, and is suitable for gatherings of vain and futile entertainment. L

Answer: If a text, poems or prose is read in such a way that it would be suitable for gatherings of vain and futile entertainment, then it would be considered as Ghina. ST

305 – Question: In auspicious occasions, is it permissible to recite songs or poems, or various supplications or poems in praise of the Sinless Imams, peace be upon all of them, which contain a virtuous message with a good voice?

Answer: It is haram to recite anything, whether it be a poem, prose, Qur’an, or poem in praise of the Pure Imams in any form that would be considered as Ghina, and reciting the Qur’an supplications or things such as this in the form of Ghina would actually incur more of a punishment. BKLMST

306 – Rule: It is not permitted for women to recite in the way that is classified as Ghina, except in wedding ceremonies and those gatherings that the common people usually hold before or after such a ceremony (wedding), with the condition that non-Mahram men do not hear their voices, although, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it is better to refrain from this. KLST

Therefore: Women are permitted to recite things in the wedding ceremonies and those that customarily take place both before and after the wedding, with the condition that non-Mahram men do not hear their voices, whether they sing as a group or individually.

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permissible to recite in the form of Ghina in wedding ceremonies. A

Only the woman who is singing in the wedding party where the pitch of the sound goes up and down, and is related to lyrics which are not obscene is an exception (these are allowed). However, it is a problem if done in the presence of non-Mahram men. B

It is not far from being probable that to recite in a wedding ceremony, that too on the night of the wedding, is permissible with the condition that non-Mahram men do not hear their voices; although, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it is better to refrain from this. G

Therefore: It is not permissible for women to recite in the form of Ghina or in a form that would be considered as entertaining in the wedding ceremonies or other than this. However, if the sound is not in a way that may be considered as entertaining then it is not a problem.

307 – Question: Is it allowed for women in Nikah ceremonies, or in programs for the birth anniversaries of the Ma’ sumin, peace be upon them, to recite in a form of Ghina?

Answer: It is not permissible, and women must refrain from such, and only in the wedding ceremony are women permitted to recite things, that too in the event that no non-Mahram men can hear their voice. BGKLST

Answer: In every way, it is not permitted to recite in the form of Ghina, and according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must not recite in the form of Ghina in the wedding ceremonies as either. A

308 – Question: If the Nikah ceremony and wedding ceremony are done together, then is it permissible for the women to recite things in the event that no non-Mahram men hear their voices?

Answer: It is not a problem. KLST

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must refrain (from this). A

Answer: It is not far form being probable that to recite in a wedding ceremony, that too only on the night of the wedding, is permissible with the condition that non-Mahram men do not hear their voices, although according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it is better to refrain from this. G

309 – Question: Is it permissible for women to recite things in the form of Ghina during the wedding party, in the event that Mahram men are present?

Answer: It is not a problem for the women, but it is not permissible for the men to listen to the recitation that is in a form of Ghina. T

310 – Question: Is it permissible for a woman to sing for her own husband?

Answer: Singing things for one’s husband is not an exception to the rule, however if a non-Mahram can not hear her voice, and it is not in the form of Ghina, then it is not a problem. ABGKLST

Therefore: Any kind of singing, even for one’s husband is not allowed. Only those sounds that are permitted to hear, and that too, as long as no non-Mahram men can hear her voice are not a problem.

311 – Rule: It is not permissible for a woman to recite songs individually (not in a chorus) which are not entertaining, such as poems in praise of the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bait (Peace be upon them), if non-Mahram men can hear her voice. AGKLST

If it leads to corruption, then it is not permitted. Rather, in most occasions, if a woman is reciting something in the presence of a man and he is listening to it, it will lead to corruption; thus it is not permitted. B

312 – Rule: It is not a problem for men to recite things in solo for men or women with the condition that it is not in the form of Ghina and it does not lead to corruption. ABKLST

313 – Question: What is the ruling for women reciting things in a chorus in the presence of women and also in the presence of non-Mahram men?

Answer: If it is not in the form of Ghina and it does not lead to corruption, then it is not a problem. KL

Answer: If it leads to corruption, then it is not permitted. Rather, in most occasions, if a woman is reciting something in the presence of a man, and he is listening to it, it will lead to corruption; thus it is not permitted. B

314 – Question: What is the ruling for men reciting things in a chorus in the presence of men or in the presence of non-Mahram women?

Answer: If it is not in the form of Ghina and it does not lead to corruption, then it is not a problem. BKLST

315 – Rule: It is not a problem for men and women to recite something in a chorus: as long as it is not in the form of Ghina, it does not lead to stimulation or corruption, and as long as the rules related to Mahram and non-Mahram are observed. L

It is not permissible for men and women to inter-mingle. B

316 – Rule: It is not a problem for women to read the Holy Qur’an in the presence of non-Mahram men even if it is done with a pleasing voice, with the condition that it does not make one excited and no corruption is associated with it. KL

If it leads to corruption, then it is not permitted. Rather, in most occasions, if a woman is reciting something in the presence of a man and he is listening to it, it will lead to corruption; thus it is not permitted. B

Women and young girls must not read the Qur’an while in the presence of non-Mahram men. Also, if a man recites (the Qur’an) with a pleasing voice and it causes the women to become excited, this (too) is a problem. G

Rules Regarding the Gatherings of Men in Wedding Ceremonies

317 – Rule: It is not a problem to clap hands in gatherings of men as long as it is not in the manner of Ghina.

Therefore: If the clapping is in the way of Ghina, then there is a problem, in it. If it is in a irregular way (not a steady beat), and clapping the hands is used as a means of encouraging someone is, then it is not a problem. AGK

Clapping one’s hands in happy occasions and during a speech in order to encourage someone, if it does not reach to the point of being considered as a vain act, then it is not a problem. B

Clapping one’s hands in happy occasions and in the programs to commemorate the birth anniversary of the pure A’immah is not a problem, with the condition that it does not take place in a Masjid or hussainiah. L

In itself, clapping the hands is not haram unless it is accompanied by (another) haram act. T

318 – Question: In the wedding gatherings for men, is it allowed for children to dance while other men clap their hands?

Answer: Children do not have any responsibility (from the Islamic point of view) and as far as the ruling for clapping hands, if it is not done in a manner of Ghina, then it is not a problem. AGKL

Answer: If it does not reach to the level of being considered as a vain act, then it is not a problem. B

Answer: If it does not necessitate a haram act, then it is not a problem. T

319 – Question: What is the ruling for clapping the hands during happy occasions, weddings, and other times? If along with clapping the hands, a metal bowl is used (to bang on) or a tub (made of copper) are also used, then what is the ruling?

Answer: It is not a problem. L

320 – Question: What is the ruling for clapping the hands during happy occasions and speeches?

Answer: If the clapping of the hands is in order to encourage the person in something that the Islamic law permits, then apparently, it is permitted. A

Therefore: It is not permitted to clap one’s hands for men who are dancing, or to clap one’s hands (in praise of) jugglers, or to encourage someone who is performing vain and trivial acts, even if the hand clapping is not in a rhythmical form.

321 – Rule: It is not allowed for the bride or other non-Mahram women to go to the men’s side of the gathering, unless they (the women) have proper hijab on. ABGKLMST

Therefore: If the women have any zinat on their face and hands, then they must cover this too from the non-Mahram men, but it is still better that they refrain from entering the men’s gatherings.

322 – Rule: If the groom knows that in the event that he goes into a gathering of women, he will look at non-Mahram women who have beautified themselves, then he must not go into that gathering, even if his looking is not with the intention of lust or gaining (sexual) pleasure. ABGKLMST

Therefore: It is haram for the groom to enter a women’s gathering even if it may be for just one minute – such as to have a photograph taken or to put the ring on, etc… in the event that he will be forced to look at non-Mahram women who have beautified themselves. However, if the women completely cover themselves and the groom will be able to refrain from looking at them, only then is it not a problem.

323 – Rule: It is not allowed for non-Mahram men to look at the bride if she does not have proper covering on or if she has any zinat on her face and hands. ABKLMT

Therefore: To look at the bride, even if it is without the intention of lust, is not allowed, even if it may be just to congratulate her, bid her farewell or…

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed for non-Mahram men to look at so much as the face and hands of non-Mahram women, whether they have zinat on or not. G

If the women believe in upholding the hijab and if they were told to observe their hijab they would comply, then it is not allowed to go to that gathering of, and in all other instances, it is not a problem as long as one does not look at them with the intention of lust or to gain (sexual) pleasure. S

324 – Rule: It is haram for men and women to inter-mingle in wedding ceremonies if it involves looking at the bride or other women, in the event that they do not have the proper covering, or have zinat on, and thus one must refrain from these types of gatherings. ABGKLMST

325– Rule: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not allowed to shave the beard off or to trim it in such a way that it can no longer be visible. In this ruling, all men are the same and there is no difference in the ruling if the men are being made fun of, or what kind of atmosphere surrounds them – the rule does not alter. Therefore, to shave off the beard for one who has just become baligh, or if he does not shave off his beard other people will make fun of him, or it is his wedding night, etc… if he shaves off his beard or even trims it in such a way that it is said he has shaved off his beard, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted. KLT

It is haram to shave off the beard in all circumstances. AG

It is not allowed to shave the hair on one’s face (for men). B

According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is haram to shave the beard; unless if by one not shaving his beard, it will cause him difficulty, for example, people will make fun of him or will mock him (to such an extent that he can not stand to bear it), then in these circumstances, it is not a problem to shave the beard. S

326 – Rule: Shaving off a part of the beard has the same ruling as shaving off the entire beard. BK

Therefore: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, men are not allowed to shave off a part of their beard, except an amount which is just to even it out.

If one trims the beard to a very small amount in order to even it out, then it is not a problem, for example the amount of the beard around the nose or near the eyes (one is allowed to trim), but in other than this instance, it is haram. AGL

327 – Question: Is it permitted to shave the hair that is under the chin (neck) or that which is on the top of the cheeks?

Answer: If it is in an amount that would not be considered as shaving, rather it would be considered as trimming the beard, then it is not a problem. ABGKT

328 – Question: What is the amount of the beard (that one must keep) and what amount must it not be less than?

Answer: Such an amount is sufficient that the general people say that one has a beard. ABGKLMT

329 – Rule: It is not a problem to shave off the mustache. ABGKLMST

330 – Question: Would the job of being a barber who has to shave off the beards of others be considered as haram?

Answer: It is haram to shave off the beard and whatever money a barber receives for this is also haram. G

Answer: According to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permitted. L

Answer: In the event that shaving the beard is, according to Ihtiyat Wajib not permitted, then taking money for shaving the beard too is, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, not permitted. S

331 – Question: In wedding ceremonies, there is a type of game (in Iran) commonly known as “Playing with Sticks” in which two people sit across from one another and, with whatever strength they have, they hit the feet of the other one (with the sticks) – and many people end up breaking the other’s foot. What is the ruling for such a game?

Answer: This type of game falls in the category of vain and futile acts and is haram. G

332 – Question: My job entails me to work with dirt and dust and so I am compelled to shave off my beard since if I do not shave it, then the dirt and dust will gather in it. Is my profession haram?

Answer: It is haram to shave off the beard according to Ihtiyat, and the excuse mentioned above does not make it permissible, and in this ruling you are no different than others. KL

333 – Question: What is the view on playing with the instruments of gambling such as dominoes, cards or other instruments used in gambling, in the event that the intention is not to win or lose and (the intention) is only to play ?

Answer: It is not permissible. GKLT

Answer: It is not improbable that it would enter into the ruling of vain acts and therefore, according to Ihtiyat, one must avoid it. A

Answer: According to Ihtiyat, one must avoid it, and regarding chess, the Ihtiyat is even stronger. B

Answer: Cards and chess are haram according to the stronger view and in the other scenarios, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, it is not permissible. S

334– Question: What is Islam’s view on the groom wearing a necktie?

Answer: The necktie is something this is related to Christians and is one of their signs, thus it is better than Muslims refrain from wearing it, although among the Muslims, it is no longer taken as a sign (for the Christians). L

Answer 1: The necktie is of the signs of the Christians, but unfortunately, it has become common among the Muslims. G

Answer 2: The necktie is one of the signs of the Christians and in is incumbent on Muslims to refrain from wearing it. G

Rules Relating to Women’s Wedding Ceremonies

334 – Rule: It is not a problem for women to clap their hands in wedding ceremonies. AKT

It is not a problem to clap the hands in joyous gatherings, or if someone is speaking in order to encourage them, as long as it does not reach to the point of being considered as vain or futile. B

It is not a problem to clap ones hands in joyous gatherings, or, in the birth anniversaries of the A’immah, peace be upon all of them, with the condition that it is not in a Masjid or a hussainiah. L

335 – Question: What is the rule regarding children dancing in wedding ceremonies and women clapping their hands?

Answer: Children do not have any responsibility (from the Islamic point of view), and (als0) it is not a problem for women to clap their hands in wedding ceremonies. GKL

Answer: Children do not have any responsibility (from the Islamic point of view) and it is not a problem to clap the hands in gatherings if it is not in a manner of Ghina. A

Answer: If it does not reach to the level of being considered as vain and futile, then it is not a problem. B

Answer: If it is not associated with a haram act, then it is not a problem. T

336 – Rule: It is not permitted to stay in a wedding ceremony in which there are vain and futile acts taking place. AGKL

If refraining from vain and futile acts means leaving a gathering, then it is not allowed to stay there (thus, one must leave). B

Therefore: If a woman sees that in a wedding ceremony other women are dancing, or women are inter-mingling with non-Mahram men, or that others are performing entertaining music in front of men; then, first the woman must try to prevent them (from these acts), and in the event that it has no effect on them, then she must leave from there.

337 – Question: Is it allowed to be present in wedding ceremonies in which there are musical instruments, drums, dancing or singing going on, if it is a wedding of someone in the family, or we are obliged to go?

Answer: It is haram to take part in gatherings in which there are vain and futile things going on just because it is a relative’s wedding does not make it permissible. AGKL

338 – Question: What is the ruling on using a tambourine in wedding ceremonies?

Answer: It is problematic. AGK

339 – Rule: The usage of any kind of (cassette) tape with entertaining music at women’s gatherings is not allowed, and one must refrain from it. ABGKLMST

340 – Rule: If a groom is present (in a women’s gathering), it is no exception and therefore, non-Mahram women must observe proper hijab in front of him. ABGKLMST

Therefore: If a groom enters a gathering of women, then the women who have zinat on their face or hands must cover their entire body, including the face and hands from him, even if the groom only comes in for only a few minutes such as to put the ring on, have a photograph taken or for any other reason. In any case, it is better to avoid having any non-Mahram men enter into a gathering of women.

341 – Question: Is it allowed for me - a Muslim women - to sit in a gathering in which my son-in-law is present, but there are also other women sitting there who are not observing hijab?

Answer: If you are able to prevent them from sinning (then you can be there), and if you are not able to, then you should not attend their gatherings of sin. G

342 – Question: Is it permissible to listen to certain kinds of music with the intention that listening to them is not for vain and entertaining purposes? For example, music that is said to be good to calm the nerves or music that some doctors recommend as a cure, or that form of music which has been composed for wars – in which the aim and purpose of them is not for vain acts?

Answer: It is haram to listen to any kind of sound that the general public would consider as music. G

343 – Rule: It is not allowed for a woman to adorn or beautify herself with the intention of having non-Mahram men look at her. ABGKLMST

344 – Question: What is the ruling for a hairdresser or a beautician who beautifies and adorns other women, when the beautician knows that the women will show (themselves) to non-Mahram men?

Answer: If a beautician beautifies the women with the intention of having them showing it off to non-Mahram men, then it is as if she is assisting her in her sin, and it is haram; however, if she has knowledge of it, without the intention, then it is not a problem. AGK

Answer: If a beautician beautifies the women with the intention of having them show it off to non-Mahram men, then it is definitely haram; but if she has knowledge of it, without the intention, then according to Ihtiyat, she should still refrain from it. B

345 – Rule: A non-Mahram man must not take the photograph or video of the bride and groom or any other non-Mahram women, even if they are his close relatives (if the women are not observing their proper hijab). ABGKLMST

346 – Rule: It is not allowed to have a video or photograph taken with the groom or other non-Mahram in the event that the women are not observing their proper hijab. AGK

347 – Rule: If a woman knows that in the event that she has a photograph taken without her hijab on, it will be shown to others in the family and non-Mahram also will see it, then it is not allowed for her to have the photograph taken without her hijab on. GK

Therefore: If the bride knows that in the event that she has a photograph taken without her proper hijab on, a family member who is her non-Mahram will see it, then she must not have the photograph taken, and it does not matter if the photographer is a woman or a Mahram man.

348 – Question: I would like to say that it is known that in wedding ceremonies, normally the photographs or video is taken by a woman, but when exposing the film or other things related to this, it is possible that a non-Mahram man may also see them. What is your opinion on this, noting that the bride has make-up on and is not wearing the hijab?

Answer: If the non-Mahram does not look at the photographs with the intention of lust and fear of falling into sin, then it is not a problem, if he knows the person who is in the photo or video. A

Answer: In the event that the non-Mahram man knows her, then it is not permitted to see them (photos or film). In other than this instance, if it is not with the intention of lust or deriving sexual pleasure, then it is not a problem. LKT

Answer: If the photo of the bride is in a place where her non-Mahram can see it, then this is one example of spreading corruption, and thus it is not allowed. G

Answer: In the event that the woman believes in upholding the Islamic hijab then it is a problem for the non-Mahram to look at a video or photo of her even if he does not know her and no corruption will be caused by looking at her. M

Therefore: (There are two scenarios) either the non-Mahram man knows the woman or he does not know her. In the event that he does not know her, then it is not a problem to look at her video or photo as long as it is not with the intention of deriving sexual pleasure; but if he knows her and if she believes in upholding the Islamic hijab, then it is not permitted to look at her film or photo if she is not wearing sufficient clothing. If she does not believe in upholding the Islamic hijab, then even if the man knows her, it is not a problem to look at her photo or film as long as it is without the intention of lust or deriving sexual pleasure.

Answer: If the women are not of those women who do not properly wear the hijab or who do not wear the hijab at all and if they were commanded to wear the hijab, they would not listen – then if she is a Muslim or otherwise and the man knows her, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must not look at her photo or film. In other than this instance, it is not a problem to look (at it) without the intention of lust or deriving sexual pleasure. S

Therefore: If a non-Mahram (man) does not know the women, or the women are among those who either do not properly wear the hijab or do not wear the hijab at all, then it is not a problem to look at their photo or film without the intention of lust or deriving sexual pleasure.

Miscellaneous Rules

349 – Question: What is the ruling for a woman who beautifies herself for other than her husband in various gatherings specifically for women - such as weddings or dinner invitations where there are only women present? In the event that it goes against the pleasure of the husband, what is the ruling?

Answer: In the event that no non-Mahram men see her, then it is not a problem, however she should try to obtain the pleasure and approval of her husband. ABGKLMST

350 – Question: In order to take part in a specific type of gathering, a woman has to wear a certain style of clothing which her husband is not happy with; but by not wearing it, she will not be dishonored and in the event that she wears that clothing, it will result in the family being upset and may cause conflict (between them). From the Islamic point of view, what is the ruling for wearing (this clothing) – is it allowed or not?

Answer: If by wearing this clothing, it causes conflict and (will lead to) corruption, then she must refrain from wearing it. The husband also must not stop her from wearing a type of clothing that is commonly worn by her peers. AGKL

351 – Rule: The houses of Muslims must be respected and it is not permitted to enter them without the permission of the owner; in fact, it is not even allowed to look into someone else’s house from the roof, a crack in the wall, or through the door. AGK

352 – Rule: If someone looks into the house of another person with the intention of looking at something that is haram for him (for example, looking at the women or daughters in that house), then the owner of that house can, in fact, it is Wajib for him to refrain and stop him from this action. If the person does not refrain from this (looking into the house), then one can stop him by force, such as by hitting him or something similar to this.

Therefore: One must pay close attention to the fact that it is not permissible to look into the house of others, with the intention of looking at non-Mahram - whether this looking is done from on top of the roof, from the patio, window, from a crack on the side of the door or window. Therefore, it is necessary that if, God forbid, one does such an act, he is prohibited (from doing it again), and if he continues to do such, then one is permitted to hit him or do something else to prevent him (from continuing it).

353 – Rule: If a person is looking into the house of someone else such that it is not possible to see the people of that house, but from far away, with the aide of modern devices (such as binoculars) he can see them, then his ruling is the same as the person who is looking (at the people) from close. Therefore, he must be prevented (from looking) in the same order as was mentioned previously.

354 – Question: Is it permitted to just keep certain things in one’s house without using them – such as cards, movies which are not permitted to watch, of a container that has alcohol in it?

Answer: It is wajib to get rid of gambling instruments and things that like this and to not do this (get rid of them) is a major sin. K

355 – Question: Is it allowed for a mother or father to hit their child without any reason simply due to being angry or not having patience, or is it a violation of haqq-un-Nas (The rights of another person)?

Answer: It is not allowed, however, it is permitted in order to teach him manners as long as it does not exceed the limits such that the skin color becomes red, black or purple-blue in color (due to hitting the child). AKT

Answer: In the event that the hitting is limited to teaching him manners, it is not a problem, but one must make sure that it does not reach to the level of having to pay the blood money. L

356 – Question: What is the ruling if a maternal or paternal aunt, maternal or paternal uncle, brother or sister hit the child?

Answer: It is not allowed, except with the permission of the guardian of the child, and that too if it is for improving the manners of the child. AGK

Answer: If one has the permission of the guardian and if the child has done something very bad, then it is not a problem to hit him five or six times as long as the conditions in the previous ruling are met. T

357 – Question: In order to teach the child manners, is it permitted that instead of hitting him, one performs something else such as to lock him in a dark room, place him in an enclosed room where he is alone, or to scare him with a frightening voice, with the condition that these are done to teach him manners?

Answer: If it does not cause the child any harm, then it is not a problem, however, one must be very cautious if locking the child in a dark room or scaring him with a frightening voice. T

358 – Question: Can a mother or father, as a means of upbringing the child, to command their son or daughter to perform tasks such as vacuuming the house, doing the laundry, going to buy groceries and other things such as this, without paying them anything?

Answer: It is not a problem. G

359 – Question: A girl who is mature and intelligent wants to marry a practicing, religious, young Muslim boy, but her father does not give her the permission due to reasons related to the boy’s material status – can the girl marry him without the permission of her father or not?

Answer: In the event that the father refuses a religious and known match (for his daughter), then his pleasure and permission become invalid, and thus is not needed. A

Answer: The permission of the father in the marriage of a virgin girl is a condition; except in the instance that he refuses a suitable match and the daughter is in need of getting married, and she fears that if she turns away from this marriage, she will not find a suitable husband. K

Answer: If the girl is a virgin and her father or grandfather do not give her permission to marry a man who the common people and the religion would consider as her equal, or they are not ready to take part in the wedding of the girl, or she has no family members to give her permission (for the wedding) due to insanity or the like, then in these instances, it is not necessary to get their permission. S

The same rule applies if it is not possible to get their permission because they are not there or for some other reason it is not possible to get their permission and the girl really needs to get married, then the permission of her father or grandfather is not becomes unnecessary.

Question: My father has left us and does not pay any attention to us, and sometimes a period of time passes in which we do not hear from him. As for the issue of marriage, is it still necessary to get his permission or not?

Answer: All in all, in the event that the guardian of a daughter cuts off all connections with her or leaves her free and does not interfere in her affairs, then it is not necessary to have his permission; but also, as long as the girl is mature and intellectually mature such that she can determine her own affairs in relation to marriage, then she is allowed to get married (without his permission). L

Answer: A girl who has reached the age of maturity and intellectually mature - meaning that she can determine her own affairs, then in the event that she is a virgin, according to Ihtiyat, she must have the permission of her father or grandfather to get married. However, if a suitable match is found (for her) but her father opposed (the marriage) then his permission is not a condition (it is not needed). Similar is the case if the father or the grandfather are not present and the daughter is in need of getting married. M

  • 1. This is a form of Istikhara as explained in Mafatih al-Jinan, page 1074 (as printed by Uswah Publications, Qum, Iran, 2000) using papers (cards).

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