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Glossary

'azl coitus interruptus

baligh one who has attained the age of puberty.

barzakh period between death and resurrection; purgatory; isthmus.

dhikr mention of certain formulae like "subhan Allah," "al-hamdu li-l-lah," etc.

diyah indemnity or compensation for injury or death.

eid religious festival.

fiqh Islamic positive law.

ghusl major ritual ablution (washing) of the entire body to achieve a state of ritual purity.

hadath condition requiring wudu' or ghusl.

hadd punishment prescribed in Textual sources (Qur'an and Sunnah) for certain violations.

hadd al-tarakhkhus point away from the boundary of a city whose inhabitants cannot be seen. Some jurists consider it to be a point from where the city's call to prayers (adhan) cannot be heard. However, Ayatullah Seestani objects to this latter definition. (MS, p. 297, Q918)

hajj pilgrimage to Mecca performed in the last month, Dhu-l-Hijjah, of the Islamic lunar calendar.

al-hakim al-shar'i religious authority, mujtahid.

hayd bleeding of a menstrual cycle.

hijab statutory Islamic dress code of modesty.

hilal crescent.

husna kindness.

ihram state of ritual consecration to perform major pilgrimage (hajj) or minor one ('umrah).

istihadah irregular bleeding other than the menstrual cycle.

istihalah transformation, chemical change.

istinqadh rescue, salvage.

janabah state after having sexual intercourse or ejaculation.

jumu'ah Friday.

kaffarah expiation, compensation, penalty.

kafir unbeliever.

khums 20% tax levied on certain items.

mahram one who falls within the prohibited degree for marriage.

majhul al-malik unknown owner, derelict property.

majlis (pl. majalis) assembly to commemorate religious events.

makruh discouraged, reprehensible.

marja' high-ranking religious authority whose guidance is sought by the laity.

mukallaf one who is competent to undertake religious obligations; religiously accountable.

mu'min believer.

nadhr solemn vow, pledge.

najasah ritual impurity.

najis ritually impure; not equivalent to unhygienic or unclean.

nifas bleeding of a woman after childbirth.

non-baligh one who has not attained the age of puberty.

non-mahram opposite of mahram.

obligatory precaution the follower (muqallid) has the discretion to revert to the ruling (fatwa) of the next high-ranking mujtahid on that particular issue only.

qada lapsed or due prayers, fasts, etc.

qasr shortened prayers of a traveller.

qiblah direction to Ka'bah for prayers, burying the deceased, etc.

Ramadan ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and the month of fasting.

riba interest, usury.

al-risalah al-'amaliyyah

practical treatise prepared by the jurist for the laity.

salat ritual prayer; formal worship.

sa'y pacing back and forth seven times by a pilgrim between Safa and Marwah.

shar'i lawful, legitimate.

shari'ah universal Islamic values and norms; commonly referred to as the Islamic law.

Shawwal tenth month in the Islamic lunar calendar.

siyam fasts.

tahir ritually pure; not equivalent to hygienic or clean.

tamm complete prayers.

taqlid emulating the opinions of a religious authority.

taqsir cutting a piece of hair or nail by the pilgrim.

tathir ritual purification.

tawaf circumambulation around the Ka'bah.

tayammum substitution for wudu' and/or ghusl.

ta'zir discretionary punishment estimated by al-hakim al-shar'i or a judge that is not prescribed in the Qur'an or the Sunnah; chastisement.

ulama religious scholars.

'urf convention, customary law.

wudu' minor ritual ablution of certain parts of the body.

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