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Pronouns

73. What is a pronoun?

74. How many types of pronouns are there?

75. What is a clear pronoun?

76. What is a hidden pronoun?

77. How many types clear pronouns are there?

78. How many types of pronouns that are not connected to any word are there?

79. How many types of pronouns that are connected to another word are there?

73. A pronoun is a word used to denote a speaker, listener or absent person or thing. For example: ﺃنا ﺃنتَ هو (I, he, you)

74. There are two types of pronouns: clear and hidden.

75. A clear pronoun is a pronoun that is present in the sentence, for example the tā' in قُمتُ and ذَهبتَ (I stood, you left)

76. A hidden pronoun is a pronoun that is not present in the sentence, for example a pronoun hidden in a verb: التَلمیذُ فَهِمَ الدرسَ (the student understands the lesson)

77. There are two types of clear pronouns: one that is not connected to any other word and one that is connected to another word.

• A pronoun that is not connected to another word is independent in speech, for example: ﺃنا نحن (we, I)

• A pronoun that is connected to another word is like a part of the word that precedes it. For example: فَهِمتُ (I understood)

78. There are two types of pronouns that are not connected to another word:

• Those that are in the nominative case:

    1. he - هُوَ

    2. they (two males) - هُما

    3. them (male) - هُم

    4. she - هِیَ

    5. they (two females) - هُما

    6. they (female) - هُنّ

    7. you (male) - ﺃنتَ

    8. you two (male) - ﺃنتُما

    9. you plural (male) - ﺃنتُم

    10. you (female) - ﺃنتِ

    11. you two (female) - ﺃنتُما

    12. you plural (female) - ﺃنتُنّ

    13. I - ﺃنا

    14. we – نَحنُ

• Those that are in the accusative case:

1. he - ﺇیّاهُ

2. they (two males) - ﺇیّاهُما

3. they (male) - ﺇیّاهُم

4. she - ﺇیّاها

5. they (two females) - ﺇیّاهُما

6. they (female) - ﺇیّاهُنّ

7. you (male) - ﺇیّاکَ

8. you two (male) - ﺇیّاکُما

9. you plural (male) - ﺇیّاکُم

10. you (female) - ﺇیّاکِ

11. you two (female) -ﺇیّاکُما

12. you plural (female) - ﺇیّاکُنّ

13. I - ﺇیّایَ

14. we -ﺇیّانا

79. There are three types of pronouns that are connected to a word:

• Those that are in the nominative case:

ت ا و ن ی

For example: قُمتُ قَامَا قَامُوا قُمنَ قُومی (stand female, women stood, men stood, two men stood, I stood)

• Those that can be in either the accusative or genitive case:

1. Ya': رَبّی ﺃکرمَنی (O' My lord! Be generous to me.)

2. Kāf: وَدّعشک صَدیقُک (Your friend bid you farewell)

3. Hā': کَتَبَ الی صَدیکهِ یَلُومُهُ (He wrote to his friend rebuking him)

• Those that can be in any case, which is the نا, for example: رَبّنا ﺇنَنا سَمِعنا (O' Our lord! Verily we hear.)

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