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Demonstrative Pronouns

193. What is a demonstrative pronoun?

194. How many kinds of demonstrative pronouns are there?

195. What are the demonstrative pronouns?

196. What is the ha that is at the beginning of the demonstrative pronouns for close objects called and is it ever erased?

197. Is a demonstrative pronoun declinable or indeclinable?

193. A demonstrative pronoun is a noun that indicates a specific person, animal, or thing. For example: هَذا الولد (this child).

194. There are three kinds of demonstrative pronouns: for close objects, for objects in between close and far, for far objects.

195. The demonstrative pronouns are:

• For things that are close:

    1. هذا (this, m.)

    2. هذانِ (these two, m.)

    3. هَوُلاء (these, m.)

    4. هذهِ (this, f.)

    5. هَاتانِ (these two, f.)

    6. هَوُلاء (these, f.)

• For things that are medium range:

    1. ذاکَ (that, m.)

    2. ذانِکَ (those two, m.)

    3. ﺃولئکَ (those, m.)

    4. تیکَ (that, f.)

    5. تانِکَ (those two, f.)

    6. ﺃولِوکَ(those, f.)

• For things that are far:

    1. ذلِکَ (that, m.)

    2. ذانّکَ (those two, m.)

    3. ﺃولالِکَ (those, m.)

    4. تِلکَ (that, f.)

    5. تانّکَ (those two, f.)

    6. ﺃولالِکَ (those, f.)

• For places:

    1. هُنا(here)

    2. هُناکَ(there, medium range)

    3. هُنالِک تَمّ(there, far)

196. The ha that is in the front of demonstrative pronouns for close objects is called the demonstrative ha and sometimes is erased.

197. All of the demonstrative pronouns are indeclinable. The dual forms are made indeclinable on an alif if it is in the nominative case, for example هذانِ, and on a yā' if it is in the accusative or genitive cases, for example هذَینِ.

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