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The Forms of Exaggeration

113. What are the forms of exaggeration?

114. How are the forms of exaggeration formed?

115. What do the forms fa'ūl and fa'īl mean?

116. What rule applies to the fa'ūl form and the noun it describes?

117. What rule applies to the fa'īl form and the noun it describes?

113. The forms of exaggeration are forms that bring about a change in the active participle to indicate exaggeration. For example: رَحِمَ (he showed mercy) becomes راحِمٌ (the merciful) which becomes رَحیمٌ (the very merciful).

114. The exaggeration form is only formed from triliteral verbs, but there is no rule one how to form them. The most famous forms are:

فَعَّال: جَبَّار (giant)

فَعَّالة: عَلّامة (high scholar)

مِفعال: مِفضال (excellent)

مِفعیل: مِسکین (destitute)

فِعِّیل: صِدِّیق (very truthful)

فَعِل: حَذِر (very cautious)

فعیل: رَحیم (very merciful)

فَعول: کَذوب (big liar)

115. The forms fa'ūl and fa'īl are used to indicate an actor or objective compliment. For example: رَسول is the same as مُرسَل and رَحیم is the same as رَاحِم.

116. The rule that applies to the form fa'ūl and the noun it describes is different depending on its meaning:

• If it has the meaning of an objective compliment it follows the noun it describes in gender. For example: هذا رَسول (this male messenger) and هذه رَسولَة (this female messenger).

• If it has the meaning of an actor it remains masculine even if the noun it is describing is feminine. For example: جاءَ الأبُ الحنونُ (the loving father came) and جائتَ الأُمُّ الحنونُ (the loving mother came). This is only the case if the described word is mentioned, if it is implied the adjective must follow the described word in gender. For example: جاءَ الحنونُ و الحنونَةُ (the loving [father] and the loving [mother] came).

117. The rule that applies to the form fa'īl and the noun it describes is different depending on its meaning:

• If it has the meaning of an actor it follows the noun it describes in gender. For example: هذا شَفیقٌ و هذه شَفیقةٌ (this male compassionate person and this female compassionate person).

• If it has the meaning of an objective compliment it remains masculine even if the noun it is describing is feminine. For example: جاءَ رجلٌ جَریحٌ (an injured man came) and جائت امرأةٌ جَریحٌ (an injured woman came). This is only the case if the described word is mentioned, if it is implied the adjective must follow the described word in gender. For example: جاءَ جَریحٌ و جَریحَةٌ (the injured [man] and the injured [woman] came).

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