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Intransitive and Transitive Verbs

58. Does every verb need an actor?

59. Does every verb need an objective compliment?

60. When does a triliteral intransitive verb become transitive?

61. How many categories of transitive verbs are there?

62. What verbs are passive verbs derived from?

63. Is a passive verb derived from an intransitive verb?

64. How is a passive verb in the preterite tense formed?

65. How is a passive verb in the aorist tense formed?

58. Every verb needs an actor and the actor is either:

• Apparent, for example: جَلَسَ المعلِّمُونَ ثُمَ تَباحَثُوا (The teachers sat down and then discussed.)

• Hidden, for example: اِلعَب (play) where the 'you' is hidden.

59. No, there are two types of verbs:

• Intransitive: A verb that suffices itself with an actor and does not need an objective compliment. For example: جاءَ الولَدُ (The boy came.)

• Transitive: A verb that doe not suffice itself with an actor, rather it needs an objective compliment as well. For example: کَسَرَ الخادِمُ ٳبریقاً (The servant broke a pitcher.)

60. Most triliteral intransitive verbs are made transitive if placed into form II or IV. For example: دامَ (to last) becomes أدامَ(to make last) or کَرُمَ (to be noble) becomes کَرَّمَ(to call noble).

61. There are two categories of transitive verbs:

• Active: a verb whose actor is known, for example: بَری التلمیذُ قَلَماً (The student sharpened a pencil.)

• Passive: a verb whose actor is not mentioned and whose objective compliment is put in the actor's place. For example: بُرِيَ القَلَمُ (The pencil was sharpened.)

62. A passive verb is normally formed from a transitive verb and the objective compliment takes the place of the actor after it is erased from the sentence. For example: ضَرَبَ زیدٌ سلیماً (Zayd hit Salīm) becomes ضُرِبَ سلیمٌ (Salīm was hit.)

63, Yes, a passive verb is formed from an intransitive verb:

• if it can be made transitive by using a preposition. For example: قَبَضَ الحارسُ علی اللصِّ (The guard seized the thief.) becomes قُبِضَ علی اللصِّ (the thief was seized.)

• if there is a adverbal noun of time or place after the verb. For example: صَامَ العابِدُ اذارَ (the worshiper fasted [in] March.) becomes صیمَ اذارُ (March was fasted.)

• if there is an infinitive after the verb. For example: احتَفَلَ الجمعُ احتفالاً عظیماً (The group rallied, a great rally.) becomes احتُفِلَ احتفالٌ عَظیمٌ (A great rally was rallied.)

64. The preterite tense passive verb is made from the preterite tense active verb by giving a kasrah to the second to last letter and a dummah to all other letters that have a vowel sign already. For example: أکَلَ(he ate) becomes أُکِلَ(it was eaten) or اِستَقَبَلَ (he faced) becomes اُستُقبِلَ (it was faced).

65. The aorist tense passive verb is made from the aorist tense active verb by giving the first letter a dummah and the second to last letter a fathah. For example: یَعلَمُ (he knows) becomes یُعلَمُ (it is known) or یَکتُبُ (he writes) becomes یُکتَبُ(it is being written

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