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Pronouns

176. What is a pronoun?

177. How many kinds of pronouns are there?

178. What is a clear pronoun?

179. How many kinds of clear pronouns are there?

180. What is a separated clear pronoun?

181. How many kinds of separated clear pronouns are there?

182. What are the separated clear pronouns in the nominative state?

183. What are the separated clear pronouns in the accusative state?

184. What is a connected clear pronoun?

185. How many kinds of connected clear pronouns are there?

186. What are the connected clear pronouns in the nominative state?

187. What are the connected clear pronouns in the accusative and genitive states?

188. What are the connected clear pronouns in the nominative, accusative and genitive states?

189. What is a hidden pronoun?

190. How many kinds of hidden pronouns are there?

191. When is it permissible for a pronoun to be hidden?

192. When is it obligatory for a pronoun to be hidden?

176. A pronoun is a noun that represents a speaking, present, or absent person. For example: أنا (I)

177. There are two types of pronouns: clear and hidden.

178. A clear pronoun is a pronoun that is pronounced. For example: هو مجتهدٌ (he is a mujtahid)1

179. There are two types of clear pronouns: separated and connected.

180. A separated clear pronoun is a pronoun that is essentially independent. For example: هو نجح (he succeeded).

181. There are two types of separated clear pronouns: separated clear pronouns in the nominative state and separated clear pronouns in the accusative state.

182. The separated clear pronouns in the nominative state are:

هُوَ (he)

هُما (he dual)

هُم (they male plural)

هِيَ (she)

هُما (she dual)

هُنَّ (they female plural)

أنتَ (you male)

أنتُما (you dual male)

أنتُم (you plural male)

أنتِ (you female)

أنتُما (you dual female)

أنتُنَّ (you plural female)

أنا (I)

نَحنُ (we)

183. The separated clear pronouns in the accusative state are:

إیاهُ (he)

إیاهُما (he dual)

إیاهُم (they male plural)

إیاها (she)

إیاهُما (she dual)

إیاهُنَّ (they female plural)

إیاکَ (you male)

إیاکُما (you dual male)

إیاکُم (you plural male)

إیاکِ (you female)

إیاکُما (you dual female)

إیاکُنَّ (you plural female)

إیايَ (I)

إیانا (we)

184. A connected clear pronoun is a pronoun that is like a part of the word it is connected to. For example: فَتَحنا (We conquered)

185. There are three kinds of connected clear pronouns: connected clear pronouns in the nominative state, connected clear pronouns in the accusative and genitive states, and connected clear pronouns in the nominative, accusative and genitive states.

186. The connected clear pronouns in the nominative state are:

تُ (I) , جَلستُ (I sat)

تَ (you male), جَلستَ (you sat)

تِ (you female), جَلستِ (you sat)

تُما (you dual male/female), جَلستُما (you two sat)

تُم (you plural male), جَلستُم (you guys sat)

تُنَّ (you plural female) , جَلستُنَّ (you girls sat)

• The dual alif, جَلسا (they two sat)

و (masculine plural), جَلسوا (they sat)

ن (feminine plural), جَلسنا (they sat)

ي (second person feminine pronoun), تَجلسین (she is sitting)

187. The connected clear pronouns in the accusative and genitive states are:

ي (me,my) أکرمَني والدي (My father respects me)

کَ (your, you male) أکرمَکَ والدکَ (your father respects you)

کِ (your, you female) أکرمَکِ والدکِ (your father respects you)

کُم (your, you male plural) أکرمَکُم والدکُم (your father respects you)

کُنَّ (your, you female plural) أکرمَکُنَّ والدکُنَّ (your father respects you)

هُ (his, him) أکرمَهُ والدهُ (his father respects him)

ها (her) أکرمَها والدها (her father respects her)

هُم (their, them male) أکرمَهُم والدهُم (their father respects them)

هُنَّ (their, them female) أکرمَهُنَّ والدهُنَّ (their father respects them)

188. The connected clear pronouns in the nominative, accusative, and genitive states are:
نا (our, us) أکرمَنا والدنا فَدَرَسنا (our father respects us so we study)

189. A hidden pronoun is a pronoun that is not pronounced. For example: کَتَبَ (he wrote)

190. There are two types of hidden pronouns: permissibly hidden and obligatorily hidden.

191. The permissibly hidden pronouns are the masculine and feminine third person pronouns. For example: زَیدٌ أتیَ (هو) (Zayd came).

192. The obligatorily hidden pronouns are the first and second person pronouns. For example: أقول (I say)

  • 1. A mujtahid is a person who is able to derive religious rulings from their sources. For more information one can refer to the book The Basics of Islamic Jurisprudence by Hassan al-Ridā’ī available at www.lulu.com/islamicbooks.

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