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Single and Dual Forms

146. What is a singular noun?

147. What is a dual noun?

148. How is a dual noun formed?

149. Are there some exceptions to this rule?

150. How are maqsūr nouns made dual?

151. How are mamdūd nouns made dual?

146. A singular noun is a noun that indicates one person, one animal, or one thing. For example: نجَّار (a carpenter).

147. A dual noun is a noun that indicates two people, two animals, or two things. For example: نحَّاران (two carpenters).

148. A noun is put into the dual form by giving the last syllable a fathah and adding the dual letters which are:

• An alif and nūn that has a kasrah if the noun is in the nominative state. For example: جاءَ وَلدَانِ (two boys came)

• A yā' and nūn that has a kasrah if the noun is in the accusative or genitive case. For example: اسطدتُ عُصفرَینِ (I hunted two sparrows)

149. Yes, there are some exceptions to this rule. The exceptions are maqsūr nouns and mamdūd nouns.

150. A maqsūr noun has two cases:

• If it ends in a straight alif - the alif should be changed to a wāw and then the dual letters should be added. For example: عصا (cane) becomes عَصَو which becomes عَصَوانِ (two canes).

• If it ends in an alif maqsūrah - the alif should be changed to a yā' and then the dual letters should be added. For example: فتیَ (young man) becomes فَتي which becomes فَتَیَانِ (two young men).

151. A mamdūd noun has two cases:

• If the hamzah is a feminine hamzah - the hamzah should be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For example: خَصراء (green) becomes خَضراوَ which becomes خَضراوانِ.

• If the hamzah is not a feminine hamzah - the hamzah can either remain or be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For example سماء (sky) becomes سماء or سَماوَ which becomes سَماءَانِ or سَماوَانِ (two skies).

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