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Non-Perfect Verbs

62. How are non-perfect verbs conjugated?

63. How is a verb with a hamza changed?

64. How is a double-lettered verb changed?

65. How is a quasi-sound verb changed?

66. How is a hollow verb changed?

67. How is a defective verb changed if the wāw, tā', or yā' pronouns are added to it?

68. How is a defective verb changed if the dual alif or is added to it?

62. Non-perfect verbs are like perfect verbs with regards to conjugation, except they are changed a little due to idghām in double-lettered verbs, weak letters in weak verbs, and erasing the hamza in verbs which have one.

63. If there are two hamzas at the beginning of a verb and the second one does not have a vowel sign, the second hamza will be changed into a letter that is in congruence with the vowel sign of the previous letter, for example: آمنتُ ، أومِنُ و اِیذَن which were originally أأمَنتُ ، أؤمِنُ و اِئذَن.

64. Double-lettered verbs are changed because of idghām. This is obligatory if both of the like letters have vowel signs, for example: مَدَّ. If the first letter has a vowel sign and the second letter does not it is obligatory to write them separately if the sakūn is used to connect the verb to the nominative pronoun with a vowel sign, for example: مَدَدتُ. It is permissible to do idghām or to write the letters separately if it is a aorist tense verb in the jussive case or a verb in the imperative form, for example: لم یَمُدَّ or لم یَمدُد.

65. If the verb is a quasi-sound verb without increase letters, the weak letter is a wāw, and the second root letter in the aorist tense has a kasrah the first root letter is erased in the aorist tense and the imperative form, for example: یَعِدُ. It is forbidden to erase the first root letter if the verb has increase letters, the weak letter is a yā', or the second root letter in the aorist tense does not have a kasrah, for example: أوجَزَ which becomes یُوجِزُ.

66. If a triliteral hollow verb is connected with a pronoun and its third root letter has a vowel sign, the second root letter will remain, for example: قام. But, if the third root letter does not have a vowel sign the second root letter will be erased, for example: صُمتُ.

67. If a defective verb is connected to the plural wāw or the second person yā' its third root letter will be erased. In this case, if the second root letter has a fathah, for example: رَمَی, it will remain the same, for example: رَمَوا. If the second root letter has a dummah, for example: یَدعُو or a kasrah, for example: یَرمِي, it will be given a dummah with the wāw and a kasrah with the yā', for example: یَدعُونَ. The third root letter is also erased if it is an alif connected to the feminine tā', for example: رَمَت.

68. If a defective verb is connected to the dual alif or and the third root letter is an alif, it will be changed back to what it originally was, for example: رَمَینا. But, if it is a verb with four or more letters, the third root letter will be changed into a yā', for example: اِهتَدَیتُ.

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