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Pronouns

209. What is a pronoun?

210. How many types of pronouns are there?

211. How many separated pronouns are there in relation to their case?

212. How many connected pronouns are there in relation to their designated case?

209. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of an apparent meaning, for example: هُوَ which takes the place of whoever it is referring to.

210. There are two types of pronouns: separated pronouns which are either inchoatives or are mentioned after إلا, for example: هوَ نائمٌ و ما نائمٌ إلا هو, or connected pronouns which are like a part of the word that comes before them, for example: الهاء in رَحِمَهُ.

211. There are two types of separated pronouns in relation to their case: nominative (هو ، هما ، هم ، هي ، هما ، هنَّ ، أنت ، أنتما ، أنتم ، أنت ، أنتما ، أنتنَّ ، أنا ، نحن) and accusative (إیّاه ، إیّاهما ، إیّاهم ، إیّاها ، إیّاهما ، إیّاهنَّ ، إیّاهک ، إیّاهکما ، إیّاهکم ، إیّاهک ، إیّاکما ، إیّآهکنَّ ، إیّاهي ، إیّاهنا ).

212. There are three types of connected pronouns in relation to their designated case: those who are only nominative (alif, wāw, nūn, yā' and tā'), for example: قاموا, those that are either accusative or genitive (the first person yā', the second person kāf, and the third person hā'), for example: أکرَمَکَ سیَّدک, and those that come in the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases which is the نا, for example: ربَّنا إنَّنا سمعنا .

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