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Adjectives

141. What is an adjective?
An adjective is a word that describes a characteristic found in the word before it. For example:
جاءَ التلمیذُ المجتهدُ (The striving student came.)

142. How many types of adjectives are there?
There are two types of adjectives: essential and non-essential.

143. What is an essential adjective?
An essential adjective indicates a characteristic that is in the described word. For example:
جاء الرجل العاقلُ (The rational man came.)

144. What is the ruling regarding an essential adjective?
An essential adjective follows the described word in:
• being definite or indefinite: الثوبُ الممزّقُ (torn clothes)

• being masculine or feminine: وَلَدٌ مُهَذَّبٌ (well-behaved child)

• being singular, dual, or plural: عاملانِ ماهرانِ (two skilled workers)

• the state of the word: عاملَین ماهرَین (two stilled workers)

145. What is a non-essential adjective?
A non-essential adjective indicates a characteristic of a word that follows the described word. For example: جاء الرجلُ الکثیرُ مالُهُ (The man who has a lot of money came.)

146. What is the ruling regarding a non-essential adjective?
A non-essential adjective is
• always singular: رأیتُ الوَلَدَینِ الممزَّقَ ثَوبُهُما (I saw two children with torn clothes)

• follows the word after it in being masculine or feminine: رَأیتُ الغلامَ المُهَذَّبَةَ أختُهُ (I saw a servant whose sister was well behaved.)

• follows the described word in being definite or indefinite and the state that the described word has: رَأیتُ غلاماً عالمةً أمُّهُ (I saw a servant whose mother was a scholar.)

147. What state does the word that comes after a non-essential adjective have?
The word that comes after the non-essential adjective is:
• an actor in the nominative state if the non-essential adjective is an active participle noun or an adjective that is similar to a verb: رَأیتُ غلاماً عالمةً أمُّهُ (I saw a servant whose mother was a scholar.)

• a subject of the predication if the non-essential adjective is a passive participle:

رأیتُ الوَلَدَینِ الممزَّقَ ثَوبُهُما

148. When is a sentence or fragment considered an adjective?
A sentence or fragment can be an adjective only after an indefinite word, for example:
سمعتُ شاعراً یُنشدُ (I heard a poet reciting poetry.)

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