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Exceptive

104. What is an exceptive?
An exceptive is a noun mentioned after إلا or its sisters and is in opposition to what was mentioned before it. For example: خَرَجَ التلامذةُ من المدرسةِ إلا خالداً (The students left the school, except Khālid.)

105. What are the sisters of إلا
There are five sisters of إلا: غَیر، سوی، عَدا، خَلا، و حاشا

106. When is it obligatory to put the exceptive of إلا in the accusative case?
It is obligatory to put the exceptive of إلا in the accusative case when the sentence before إلا is a complete positive sentence. For example: یعیشُ النَّاسُ براحةٍ إلا الکسلانَ (The people live in comfort except lazy people.)

107. When is it permissible to put the exceptive of إلا in the accusative case?
It is permissible to put the exceptive of إلا in the accusative state or to have it follow the word it is an exceptive of if the sentence before the إلا is complete and negative. For example:
ما نَجَحَ الطلابُ إلا إبراهیمَ أو إبراهیمُ (The students did not succeed except Abraham.)

108. When is the state of the exceptive of إلا determined by what comes before it?
The state of the exceptive of إلا is determined by what comes before it when the sentence before the إلا is an incomplete sentence. For example: ما جاءَ إلا سلیمٌ (Nobody came except Salīm.)

109. What is the ruling of an exceptive of غیر or سوی ?
The ruling regarding the exceptives of غیر and سوی is that it is always in the genitive state being a compliment of a prefixed noun. But the words غیر and سوی have the same rules as the exceptive of إلا. For example: نجح الطلاب غیرَ الکسلانِ (The students succeed except lazy ones.), or ما نجح عیرُ المجتهدِ (Nobody succeeds except the striver.)

110. What is the ruling of an exceptive of خلا , عدا , or حاشا
خلا , عدا , and حاشا are:
• prepositions and whatever comes after them is in the genitive state, for example:

نجح الطلابُ عدا الکسلان
• verbs and whatever comes after them is in the accusative state being the objective compliment, for example: نجح الطلابُ ما عدا الکسلانَ . they are always verbs if preceded by a infinitive .

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