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Ishtighal

82. What is ishtighal?
Ishtighal is a noun that comes before the verb that is affected by a pronoun which refers to the first noun. For example: الکتاب قرأتُهُ (The book, I read it.)

83. What is the noun that comes first called?
The noun that comes first is called the noun of ishtighal.

84. When is it obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative case?
It is obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative case if it comes after:
• a conditional word, for example; إنِ العِلمَ خَدَمتَهُ فأحسِن إلیه (Verily, I put myself in the service of knowledge and it did good to me.)

• after ألا , for example: ألا التلمیذَ المجتهد تکافِئُونَهُ (Why don't you be like the striving student?)

• after هلا , for example: هلا خَیرَ نفسِکَ تریدُهُ (The best for yourself, don't you want it?)

• after هل , for example: هَل سلیماً أهَنتَهُ (Did you disrespect Salīm?)

85. What function does the noun of ishtighal have if it is in the accusative case?
If the noun of ishtighal is in the accusative case it is an objective compliment of an implied verb which is explained by the mentioned verb. For example: هل الثَّمرَ أکلتَهُ؟ (The date, did you eat it?) was really: هل أکلتَ الثمر أکلته؟

86. When is it obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the nominative case?
It is obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the nominative case if it comes:
• after إذا , for example: دَخَلتُ البَیتَ فإذا الولدُ یُوَبِّخُهُ أبوه (I entered the house, and all of a sudden there was a father who was scolding his son.)

• after a hāl accusative hlasjwāw, for example: سافَرتُ و الشعبُ ینهاه الخطیبُ عنِ الحربِ (I traveled while the youth, the speaker was forbidding him from war.)

• before conditional words, interrogative words, ألا , هلا , the inchoative lām, the negative , the informative kam, the annular prepositions, and conjuncts.

87. What function does the noun of ishtighal have if it is in the nominative case?
If the noun of ishtighal is in the nominative case it is an inchoative and the verbal sentence after it is the predicate in the nominative case.

88. When is it permissible to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative or nominative cases?
It is permissible to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative or nominative cases in any other case that was not mentioned. For example: التُّفاحةُ أکلتُها (The apple, I ate it.)

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