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Nominative Cases of a Noun: Inchoative and Predicate

39. What is an inchoative?
An inchoative is a noun in the nominative case that is mentioned at the beginning of a sentence. For example: العلمُ نافعٌ (Knowledge is beneficial.)

40. What is a predicate?
A predicate is a word that completes the meaning of the inchoative. For example: المطرُ غزیرٌ (The rain is heavy.)

41. What is the rule regarding inchoatives and predicates?
The inchoative is a definite noun that comes first and a predicate is an indefinite noun, if it is a noun, which comes after the inchoative.

42. Is it possible for an inchoative to be an indefinite noun?
The inchoative can be indefinite if it is useful. For example: شمسٌ مضیئةٌ ظَهَرَت (A luminous sun appeared.)

43. When does the predicate come before the inchoative?
The predicate comes before the inchoative if:
• the inchoative is intended by itself. For example: ما عادلٌ إلا اللهُ (There is no just being except Allah.). This means that Allah, nothing else, was intended.

• the predicate is a adverbial noun of time or place or a genitive prepositional phrase and the inchoative is indefinite. For example: في البیت لصٌ (A thief is in the house.)

• the predicate is one of the words that must come at the beginning of a sentence. For example:

أینَ الطریقٌ (Where is the path?)
• if the inchoative is connected to a pronoun that refers to the predicate. For example:

في الدارِ صاحبُها (The owner of the house is in the house.)

44. What is a sentence comprised of an inchoative and a predicate called?
A sentence comprised of an inchoative and a predicate is called a nominal sentence. For example: الکسلُ عاقبتُهُ الفقرُ (The end of a lazy person is poverty.)

45. How many types of predicates are there?
There are three types of predicates:
• Noun, for example: عليٌ أسدٌ ('Alī is a lion.)

• Sentence, for example: الکسل عاقبته الفقر

• Fragment, for example: بَلاء الإنسانِ مِن اللسانِ (Man's tribulations come from the tongue.)

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