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Particles Which Resemble a Verb

59. What are particles which resemble a verb?
Particles which resemble a verb are added to an inchoative and predicate and make the inchoative, its subject, in the accusative form and put the predicate into the nominative form. For example:
إنَّ البردَ قارسٌ (Verily, the cold weather is severe.)

60. How many particles are there which resemble a verb?
There are six particles which resemble a verb: إنَّ ، أنَّ ، کَأنَّ ، لَکنَّ ، لیتَ ، لعلَّ

61. Why do these particles resemble verbs?
The reason that these particles resemble a verb is because they carry the meaning of a verb. أنَّ and إنَّ have the meaning of emphasis, کَأنَّ has the meaning of similarity, لَکنَّ has the meaning of but, لیتَ has the meaning of an impossible hope, and لعلَّ has the meaning of hope.

62. What is the ruling concerning these particles if a is added to them?
If a is added to one of these particles they do not put the inchoative into the accusative case and they may be written before nouns or verbs. For example: إنَّما الصَّبرُ مفیدٌ (Verily, patience is useful.)

63. How many types of predicates of particles which resemble a verb are there?
The predicate of particles which resemble a verb is either a noun, for example: کَأنَّ علیاً أسدٌ ('Alī is like a lion.), a sentence, for example: لعلَّ التِّلمیذَ یَنجَحُ (Hopefully the students will be successful.), or a fragment, for example: إنَّ الصدیقَ عندنا (Verily Sadīq is with us.)

64. When is it obligatory for the predicate of particles which resemble a verb to come before the subject?
It is obligatory for the predicate of these particles to be mentioned before the subject if the predicate is an adverbial noun of time or place or a prepositional phrase and:
• the subject is indefinite. For example: إنَّ مَعَ العُسرِ یُسراً (Verily, with difficulty there is ease.)

• the subject is connected to a pronoun that refers to the predicate. For example: إنَّ في الدارِ صاحبَها (Verily in the house is its owner.)

65. When is it permissible for the predicate of particles which resemble a verb to come before the subject?
It is permissible for the predicate of these particles to be mentioned before the subject if the predicate is an adverbial noun of time or place or a prepositional phrase and the subject is definite, for example: إنَّ في الصَّومِ صحَّةَ البدنِ (Verily in fasting there is health.)

66. When is the hamzah of inna given a kasrah?
The hamzah of inna given a kasrah if:
• it is at the beginning of a sentence, for example: إنَّ اللهَ غفورٌ (Verily Allah is forgiving.)

• it is after the verb قال , for example: قلتُ إنَّکَ وَدودٌ (I said: “Verily you are friendly.)

• it is after a request, for example: أفِق إنَّ الفجرَ قد طَلَع (Get up for verily dawn has arrived.)

• it is after a vocative, for example: یا بطرسٌ إنَّکَ تکفر بي (O' Peter, you have disbelieved in me.)

• it is after ثمّ , for example: ثمَّ أنَّه نَهَضَ فتکلَّمَ (Then, verily he got up and spoke.)

• it is after حیثُ , for example: من حیثُ أنَّه عالمٌ خَطَبَ بفصاحةٍ (From one viewpoint he is a scholar who speaks eloquently.)

• it is after إذ , for example: تُب إذ إنَّ اللهَ راحمٌ (Repent, for surely Allah is merciful.)

• it is after the interrogative ألا , for example: ألا إنَّ الدنیا کأحلامِ نائمٍ (Don't you know that the world is like a dream.)

67. When is the hamzah of inna given a fathah?
The hamzah of inna given a fathah if it, with its predicate, have the meaning of an infinitive. Examples of this in the different cases are:
• in the nominative case: بَلَغَني أنَّکَ راحل (It has reached me that you are leaving.)

• in the accusative case: عرفتُ أنَّکَ قادمٌ (I know that you are coming.)

• in the genitive case: تعلَّم في صغرِک لأنَّ الوقتَ قصیرٌ (Learn in your youth because of short time.)

68. Is the inchoative lām added to the subject or predicate of inna?
The inchoative lām added to the subject or predicate of inna for emphasis. It is added to whichever one comes last. For example: إنَّ اللهَ لغفورٌ (Verily Allah is forgiving) or أنَّ في الدارِ لزَیداً (Verily Zayd is in the house.)

69. Is anything added to the particles which resemble a verb?
Yes, the that denies a whole genus is added to the particles which resemble a verb and performs the same action that the particles do. For example: لا رجلَ حاضرٌ (No man is present.)

70. What is the ruling of the that denies a whole genus?
The that denies a whole genus puts its subject into the accusative state if it is prefixed to another word. For example: لا کتابَ سفاهةٍ ممدوحٌ (No foolish book is praised.) It makes its subject indeclinable on the accusative sign if it is not prefixed to another noun. For example: لا زائرین عندکم (No pilgrim is with you.)

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