160. What is a substitute?
A substitute follows what it indicates. For example: جاءَ یوسفُ أخوکَ (Joseph, your brother, came.)
161. How many types of substitutes are there?
There are three types of substitutes: substitutes of the whole, substitutes of the part, substitutes of implication.
162. What is a substitute of the whole?
A substitute of the whole indicates the indicated word completely, for example: أخوکَ إبراهیمُ صدیقُنا (Your brother, Abraham, is our friend.)
163. What is a substitute of the part?
A substitute of the part indicates part of the indicated word, for example: سَقَطَ البیتُ سَقفُهُ (The house, its ceiling, fell.)
164. What is a substitute of implication?
A substitute of implication indicates an essential characteristic of the indicated word, for example: أطرَبني البلبلُ تَغریدُه (I was moved by the nightingale's song.)
165. What is the condition of substitutes of the part and substitutes of implication?
The condition of the substitutes of the part and substitutes of implication is that they have to be contracted to a pronoun that refers to the indicated word. For example: قرأتُ الکتابَ نصفَهُ (I read the book, half of it.)