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122. What is a vocative?
A vocative is a noun that is brought to the listeners attention by a vocative preposition that represents the verb 'I call.' For example: یا رَجُلُ (O' man.)

123. How many vocative prepositions are there?
There are four vocative prepositions: یا ، أیا ، أي ، أ

124. What forms does the vocative take?
A vocative can be:
• a proper noun, یا یوسفُ

• an intended indefinite noun, یا ثعلبُ (O' fox.)

• a non-intended indefinite noun, یا غافلاً (O' unaware person.)

• something similar to a prefixed noun and its compliment, یا عاملاً للخیرِ (O' worker of good.)

125. What states does the vocative take?
There are two states for vocatives: indeclinable on the nominative sign and the accusative state.

126. When is the vocative indeclinable upon the nominative sign?
The vocative is made indeclinable on the nominative sign if it is a proper noun or an intended indefinite noun.

127. When is the vocative in the accusative state?
The vocative is put into the accusative state if it is a non-intended indefinite noun, a prefixed noun, for example: یا عبدَ اللهِ , or an intended indefinite noun that is followed by an adjective, for example:
یا رجلاً شریفاً (O' dignified man.)

128. How is a vocative with the alif-lām suffice formed?
A vocative that has the alif-lām suffix is put in the nominative state and preceded by:
أیُّها or أیّتها , یا أیّها المسافرُ (O' traveler.)

• A demonstrative pronoun, یا هذا الثعلبُ (O' this fox.)

129. What state does a noun after أیُّها or أیّتها have?
The word that comes after أیُّها or أیّتها is:
• a substitute if it is apolistic, یا أیّها الرَجلُ

• an adjective if it is non-apolistic, یا أیّها الفاضل (O' honored person.)

130. How is the word Allah made into a vocative?
Sometimes the word Allah is put into the vocative form by using one of the vocative prepositions, for example: یا اللهُ . Sometimes it is put into the vocative form by adding a doubled mīm to the end of Allah, for example: اللّهُمَّ

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