1. When there is no possibility of finding water sufficient for ghusl or wudhu;
2. When owing to old-age or the danger of thieves or beasts or unavailability of any means to get water from its place it is difficult to do ghusl or wudhu;
3. When there is any danger to life or health from the use of water;
(Note: If by using hot water, that danger can be averted then it is necessary to use hot water;
tayammum is not allowed)
4. When there is water, but one is afraid that by using that water he will put himself, his companions or valuable animals in the danger of remaining thirsty or becoming ill;
5. When there is water but the body or the clothes of the person concerned is najis, and he finds that if he uses the water in wudhu or ghusl, his body or the clothes will remain najis. In this case he will cleanse his body or the clothes by water and then will do tayammum;
6. When there is no water except ghasbi or mudhaf; or there is no pot of water except a pot which is made of silver or gold or which is ghasbi;
7. When the time of prayer is so short that if he starts wudhu or ghusl his prayer will be qadha and he expects that by doing tayammum the prayer will be finished in time.
In these seven conditions a person should do tayammum; not wudhu or ghusl.
Tayammum should be done (in order of preference) on: (a) Earth; (b) Sand; (c) Chunks of sand or earth -- other than baked in fire; (d) Stones - other than minerals; (e) If the first mentioned four things are not available then, and only then, it is permissible to do tayammum on the dust which gathers upon the mats, floors, desks etc.; (f) If the dust, also, cannot be found, then it is allowed to do tayammum on mud.
Note: Some people keep earth in a small bag and do tayammum upon its dust which gathers on the outside. It is not correct. They have earth with them, therefore, they are not allowed to do tayammum on dust, which has been allowed just as an emergency measure. They should open the bag and do tayammum on earth.
(a) All the above-mentioned led things must be dry as far as possible. Even the mud should be
dried, if possible, to convert it into the chunk of earth;
(b) They must be tahir;
(c) And mubah - not ghasbi;
(d) The place where these things are kept, must be mubah;
(e) The place where you are standing while doing tayammum, must be mubah.
1. Niyyah: I am doing tayammum in place of wudhu or ghusl (as the case may be), so that my prayer or fast (as the case may be) may be correct, wajib or sunnat (as the case may be) qurbatan ilal-Laah.
2. Strike palms of both hands together upon the thing on which tayammum is correct e.g. earth or sand etc. Remember that just putting the hand upon earth etc. is not sufficient. You must hit or strike it by your palms.
3. Pull both palms together from the beginning of the forehead down to the point of the nose. Both sides of the forehead joining the ears should be included in it. Eyes and cheeks are not to be included.
4. Then pull the left palm upon the back of the right hand from the projecting small bone on the wrist up to the fingertips;
5. Then pull the right palm on the back of the left palm likewise:
6. Strike the palms together upon earth etc. second time;
7. Pull the left palm on the back of right hand, as explained above.
8. Pull the right palm on the back of the left hand, as explained above.
If a person has to do ghusl and wudhu both, and he has got water sufficient for only one of them, he will do tayammum in place of other taharat, after using the water in the taharat for which it was sufficient.
The hands and forehead must be tahir before tayammum; there should not be anything like ring or nail-polish etc. which may be a cover against the earth etc.