Not to take up the cause of the dishonest -the Apostle may pray for his followers-Forgiveness of Allah always there is for those who seek it after evil with the necessary amendment.
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَكُن لِّلْخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيمًا
105. "Verily We have sent down the Book to you with that you may judge between people by what Allah has shown (taught) you. And be not an advocate for the treacherous."
Basing on what is recorded in some authentic commentary books, once it happened that, in one of the battles, a Muslim stole a chain mail.
When he was going to be marked by ignominy, he threw the chain mail into the house of a Jew, and then gathered some men saying that the Jewish person was a thief, not that Muslim. The subject was brought to the Prophet (S) and the verse was revealed, announcing such:
In this verse, at first Allah recommends the Prophet (S) that the purpose of sending down this heavenly Book is that these rules of the truth and equity should be practiced among people. It says:
Then, it awares the Prophet (S) by saying that:
"... And be not an advocate for the treacherous."
It is cited in Majma'-ul-Bayan (vol. 6, p. 32 Persian translation) that although this verse addresses the Prophet (S), the target is the Ummat of the Prophet (S) not the Prophet himself, because, upon the consensus of Ummat, the Prophet (S) is immaculate from all sins and disgraces.
Therefore, since the revelation of the Qur'an is based on the truth, the judgements should be performed upon the basis of the truth, too, not upon the relations. Thus, in Islam, treating on justice is also necessary even towards a non-Muslim person, (regarding to the occasion of revelation of the verse).
وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
106. "And seek forgiveness of Allah. Verily Allah is Forgiving, Merciful."
In this holy verse, the Prophet (S) is commanded that he seeks the forgiveness of Allah, for certainly Allah (s.w.t.) is forgiving and l merciful.
Yet, as it was mentioned in the commentary of the previous verse, cited by the author of Majma'-ul-Bayan, that the verse was addressing the Prophet's Ummat, here, too, it means to seek forgiveness for the Ummat, and we know that the Prophet (S) is free from any fault. The verse says:
وَلاَ تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا
107. "And do not plead on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily Allah does not love any who is treacherous, sinful."
The leaders of Islam and Muslims ought to find the treacherous ones and know their plans, so that they can decide on a suitable situation for themselves. However, injustice and treachery unto people is doing wrong to oneself.
Treachery pollutes the society and this social pollution reaches ourselves. Then, pleading a treacherous person is unlawful, and it is considered as participating in the crime and being content with the treachery.
We should know, of course, that the state of the slight treacheries, which are done unknowingly and gullibly, is different from the state of the treachery of the mischievous conspirators. (The Arabic words / yakhtanun/ (those who deceive), /khawwan/ (treacherous), and /'asima/ (sinful) indicate to a state of permanent treachery.) Then in this verse, it says:
يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لاَ يَرْضَى مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا
108. "They (the treacherous) hide from people but they hide not from Allah; while He is with them when they hold nightly discourses that do not please Him. And Allah encompasses what they do."
Allah (s.w.t.) blames the treacherous ones in this verse. The verse says they shrink from people that the inward of their deeds be manifested, but they are not ashamed of Allah!
Allah, the One Who is Omnipresent, is always with them. So, at that time of night, when they are designing some treacherous plans and saying some words that are displeasing unto Him, He is with them and is aware of whatever they do. It says:
هَاأَنتُمْ هَـؤُلاء جَادَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَمَن يُجَادِلُ اللّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلاً
109. "(Suppose that) you pleaded for them in this worldly life, but who will plead for them with Allah on the Day of Resurrection, or who shall be their protector?"
In these three holy verses, the Qur'an gives three warnings to three groups:
It tells the judge not to transgress the bounds of right:
It tells the treacherous one that Allah observes his deeds:
In the above verse, it tells the defenders of the treacherous that their efforts will be useless for the Day of Judgement.
وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ اللّهَ يَجِدِ اللّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
110. "And whoever does evil or acts unjustly to his own self; then seeks forgiveness of Allah, shall find Allah Forgiving, Merciful."
The Qur'anic word /su/, in philology, means 'to harm others', too. Thus, the verse refers to both being unjust to people and being cruel to oneself.
The previous verse, criticized the treacherous and protection of the treacherous. Here, in this verse, it states the way of rescue from it. The Qur'an says that gate of the path of return is open to the wrong doers. Now, it is they who should decide and return from doing sin and repent. It says:
وَمَن يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
111. "And whoever commits a sin, indeed he commits it only against his own self and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise."
Sin, which is a transgression against the bound of Divine law, destroys the inner purity, virtue of the spirit, and justice; and this very effect is the greatest damage. In the system of existence and also in Allah's way of treatment, the result of injustice toward people, soon or late, reaches to our own selves.
And, at the end of the verse, it implies that the Lord is both All-Knowing, and is aware of all the deeds of the servants, and is All-Wise, and punishes every wrong doer fitting with whatever the one deserves. It says:
وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا
112. "And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it an innocent, he indeed burdens (himself) with the calumny and a manifest sin."
This verse has pointed to the importance of committing the sin of calumny upon some innocent people. It says:
To denigrate an innocent is one of the most disgraceful actions that Islam has seriously condemned.
It has been narrated from the Prophet of Islam (S) who said: "The one who slander a believing man or woman, or says something about them which is not in him (her), on the Day of Resurrection Allah sets the one on a heap of fire until he (she) comes out (of the responsibility) of what the one has said." 3
Indeed, making current this unjust manner as a custom in a society causes to disturb the order and probity of that society, to pollute the truth unto untruth, the innocent be involved into difficulty and the sinner be saved, and the common confidence be vanished.