فَرِحَ الْمُـخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقْعَدِهِمْ خِلاَفَ رَسُولِ اللّهِ وَكَرِهُوا أَن يُجَاهِدُوا بِاَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَقَالُوا لاتَنْفِرُوا فِي الْحَرِّ قُلْ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرّاً لَوْ كَانُوا يَفْقَهُونَ
81. “Those who were left behind were glad on account of their sitting behind against (the command of) the Messenger of Allah, and were averse from striving with their possessions and their selves in the way of Allah, and said: ‘Do not go forth in the heat’. Say: ‘The Fire of Hell is much severe in heat, if only they could understand’.”
The hypocrites were happy that they had not participated in the Holy Struggle, because they did not like to strive in the way of Allah by their properties and their lives. They not only did not participate themselves in the Holy Struggle but also prevented some others to take part in it. The verse in this regard says:
The Battle of Tabūk happened in a season when the weather was very hot and blazing then the hypocrites prohibited people not to go forth in that hot weather. Therefore, Allah answers them that the Fire of Hell is more blazing if they understand. The verse continues saying:
That is, they were afraid of the heat of the weather while the blazing Fire of Hell is waiting for them.
فَلْيَضْحَكُوا قَلِيلاً وَلْيَبْكُوا كَثِيراً جَزَآءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
82. “Therefore they shall laugh a little and weep much (as) a recompense for what they used to earn.”
If the hypocrites knew what kind of rewards they have lost and how great opportunities and bounties they have rejected because of abandonment of the participation in the Holy Struggle, they should make merry little and weep very much. Yet, comparing the long time weepings in the Hereafter, that they will have before them, the weeping during their life-time is naught.
The verse says:
فإِن رَجَعَكَ اللّهُ إِلَى طَآئِفَةٍ مِنْهُمْ فَاسْتَأْذَنُوكَ لِلْخُرُوجِ فَقُل لَن تَخْرُجُوا مَعِيَ أَبَداً وَلَن تُقَاتِلُوا مَعِيَ عَدُوّاً اِنَّكُم رَضِيتُمْ بِالْقُعُودِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ فَاقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْخَالِفِينَ
83. “So if Allah brings you back to a party of them and they ask your permission to go forth, say: ‘You shall never go forth with me and you shall never fight an enemy with me; surely you were pleased to sit (idle) the first time, then sit (now also idle) with those who stay behind’.”
Whoever repents sincerely and truthfully, it will be accepted by Allah, but the hypocrites asked permission to go to fight hypocritically and affectedly.
The Qur’ānic term /xālif/ means both ‘the one who violates going fight’, and ‘an antagonist’.
Do not trust upon the hypocrites’ request for attending in the Holy Struggle. The verse says:
And do fear from those who escaped from going to fight yesterday but they are candidates to attend in the battle-field today. The verse continues saying:
Therefore, hypocrites must be despised and deserted. The holy verse concludes as follows:
وَلا تُصَلِّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُم مَاتَ أَبَداً وَلاتَقُمْ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ
84. “And never pray over any one of them who dies, nor stand by his grave. They indeed disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and died while they were ungodly.”
The way of the Prophet’s life (S) was so that he used to attend in the funeral and burial ceremonies of Muslims’ deads. He prayed for them and established funeral prayer over their corpses. But Allah has prohibited His Messenger to attend in the ceremonies of the dead bodies of the hypocrites. The verse says:
Thus, the dead body of a hypocrite is also despised when Muslims ought not to attend their funerals nor stand by their graves. Establishing funeral prayer and visitation of tombs is as a sign of a reverence and an esteem to the body of a Muslim believer; and since a hypocrite deserves no reverence, then the verse says:
وَلاَ تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَأَوْلاَدُهُمْ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُعَذِّبَهُم بِهَا فِي الْدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ
85. “And let not their possessions and their children astonish you; verily Allah only desires thereby to chastise them in this world, and that their souls depart while they are infidels.”
A similar statement to this verse, with a little difference in recitation, was referred to in holy verse No. 55 of the current Surah.
However, sometimes it happens that, instead of welfare and happiness, wealth and children are the cause of affliction and chastisement for a group of people. That is why the verse says:
وإِذَآ اُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ ءَامِنُوا بِاللّهِ وَجَاهِدُوا مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ اُولُوا الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُوا ذَرْنَا نَكُن مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ
86. “And whenever a Surah is sent down, saying ‘Believe in Allah and strive hard along with His Messenger’, those with abundant means among them ask leave of you, and they say: ‘Let us be with those who sit back.”
Sometimes it happened that a Surah or a verse of the Qur’ān concerning the believers was revealed and invited them to be firm in Faith and to strive in the way of Allah beside the Prophet (S).
Such revelations caused the believers to become spiritually encouraged, firm, and steadfast; but those Divine revelations caused the hypocrites to become inconvenient and despondent. So, they (the hypocrites) sometimes came to the Prophet (S) and uttered some materials which clearly indicated their hypocrisy.
This verse denotes that when a Surah was revealed wherein people were enjoined to belief in Allah and Holy Struggle beside the Prophet (S), some of the rich hypocrites came to the Messenger of Allah (S) and asked permission not to participate in the Holy Struggle.
They said that they might be allowed to stay at home with those who could stay at home, and not to take part in the Holy Struggle. The verse says:
رَضُوا بِاَن يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لايَفْقَهُونَ
87. “They were content that they should be with those who stay behind, and a seal has been set upon their hearts, so they do not understand.”
The matter discussed in the previous verse is continued in this verse, saying that the hypocrites became happy to stay with those who stay behind and, like women, children, and patients, who do not take part in Holy Struggle, and to remain at home.
It is clear that he who has no Faith in Allah will certainly refuse to go to fight in His way, because he does not believe in the excellent rewards that Allah has promised for the godly strivers. Therefore, a hypocrite considers that participation in such a war is a fall into danger and it is a kind of self murder.
Then, at the end of the verse, the Qur’ān adds that the hearts of the hypocrites are sealed. Therefore, they do not conceive the Truth, for there have been drawn a curtain before their eyes and ears. It is their infidelity that has caused them to be incapable to understand the facts.
The verse says:
لكِنِ الْرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا مَعَهُ جَاهَدُوا بِاَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ وَاُوْلَئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَاُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
88. “But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive hard with their possessions and their selves, and these it is who shall have good things and these it is who shall be successful.”
In the verse before this verse, the Qur’ān denoted that the hypocrites usually refuse to participate in Holy Struggle in the way of Allah and they like to stay at home at the time of war like women, little children, and sick persons.
Now, in this verse, those persons are referred to whose manner is just opposite to that of the hypocrites. They consist in the Prophet (S) and the believers who are ever ready to participate in Holy Struggle with all their possibilities.
The verse says:
This ending part of the verse means that Allah will give them some good rewards, and they will reach to the happiness of both this world and the Hereafter.
In this world, they gain happiness by overcoming the enemies and strengthening the foundation of their own society toward ever-increasing progression. And in the Hereafter, they will be rewarded by being enjoyed of the Divine bounties.
أَعَدَّ اللّهُ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الاَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
89. “Allah has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow wherein shall they abide forever. That is the great success.”
In this verse, the statement is upon the great rewards that Allah will bestow on the believers. It remarks that, for such believers who strive in the way of Allah with their wealth and selves, Allah has prepared gardens that rivers flow under their trees and, more important than that is that, they will eternally abide therein.
Then the Qur’ān adds that this circumstance is that very great success. The verse says:
There are also some more rewards promised for the strivers which have been mentioned in some other verses of the Qur’ān. One of them is that Allah guides those who strive in His way unto His ways.
That is, He will bestow on them a sort of recognition that they can be informed of the facts of the world of existence and enjoy the special and particular guidance of Allah, so that they may not be involved with misunderstanding. Surah ‘Ankabūt, No. 29, verse 69 says: