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Commandments, Advice

Commandments of Allah (swt)

Surah An – Nahl, 16:90-91

إِنَّ اللّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاء ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ

’In-nal-laaha ya’-muru bil‘adli wal-’ihsaani wa ’iitaaa-’i zil-qurbaa wa yanhaa ‘anil-fah-shaaa-’i wal-munkari wal bagh-yi; ya-‘izukum la-‘al-lakum tazak-karuun.
90. Behold, God enjoins justice, and the doing of good, and generosity towards (one’s) kindred; and He forbids all that is shameful and all that runs counter to reason, as well as envy; (and) He exhorts you (repeatedly) so that you might bear (all this) in mind.

وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِ اللّهِ إِذَا عَاهَدتُّمْ وَلاَ تَنقُضُواْ الأَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلاً إِنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

Wa ’awfuu bi-‘Ahdil-laahi ’izaa ‘aahad-tum wa laa tanquzul-’aymaana ba‘-da tawkiidihaa wa qad ja-‘al-tumul-laaha ‘alaykum kafiilaa: ’in-nal-laaha ya‘-lamu maa taf-‘aluun.
91. And be true to your bond with God whenever you bind yourself by a pledge, and do not break (your) oaths after having (freely) confirmed them and having called upon God to be witness to your good faith: behold, God knows all that you do.

Advised to seek refuge with God, from Satan

Surah Fussilat, 41:36

وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Wa ’im-maa yanza-ghan-naka minash-Shaytaani nazghunfasta-‘iz bil-laah. ’In-naahuu Huwas-Samii-‘ul-‘Aliim.
36. Hence, if it should happen that a prompting from Satan stirs thee up (to blind anger), seek refuge with God: behold, He alone is all-hearing, all-knowing!

In this verse the best possible way and the greatest and best remedy against an open attack from the satanic forces is given i.e., to seek refuge with God and the promise of response from God is there for everyone who seeks to have it.

Advice of Prophet Luqman(a) to his son

Surah Luqman, 31 :17-19

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

Yaa-bunay-ya ’aqimis-Salaata wa’-mur-bil-ma‘-ruufi wanha ‘anil-munkari wasbir ‘alaa maaa ’asaabak: ’in-na zaalika min ‘azmil-’umuur.
17. “O my dear son! Be constant in prayer, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and bear in patience whatever (ill) may befall thee: this, behold, is something to set one’s heart upon!”

وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ

Wa laa tusa’-‘ir khad-daka lin-naasi wa laa tamshi fil-’arzi marahaa ’in-nal-laaha laa yuhib-bu kul-la mukh-taalin-fakhuur.
18. “And turn not thy cheek away from people in (false) pride, and walk not haughtily on earth: for, behold, God does not love anyone who, out of self-conceit, acts in a boastful manner.”

وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ

Waqsid fii mash-ika waghzuz min-sautik: ’in-na ’an-karal-’aswaa-ti la-sau-tul-hamiir.
19. “Hence, be modest in thy bearing, and lower thy voice: for, behold, the ugliest of all voices is the (loud) voice of asses.”

In Hadith al Qudsi, Allah (swt) says:

“Oh! Sons of Adam! How many candles have been extinguished by the wind?
How many worshipper’s worship has been corrupted by their pride?
How many poor people have been corrupted because of their poverty?
How many wealthy people have been corrupted because of their wealth?
How many healthy people have been corrupted because of their good health?
How many scholars have been corrupted because of their knowledge?”

To die as Muslims

Surah Yusuf, 12 :101

رَبِّ قَدْ آتَيْتَنِي مِنَ الْمُلْكِ وَعَلَّمْتَنِي مِن تَأْوِيلِ الأَحَادِيثِ فَاطِرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ أَنتَ وَلِيِّي فِي الدُّنُيَا وَالآخِرَةِ تَوَفَّنِي مُسْلِمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ

Rab-bi qad ’aatay-tanii minal-mulki wa ‘al-lam-tanii min-ta’-wiilil-’ahaadiith, - Faatiras-samaa-waati wal-’arz! ’Anta Waliy-yii fid-dunyaa wal-’Aakhirah. Ta-waf-fanii Muslimanw-wa ’al-hiqnii bis-Saali-hiin.
101. “O my Sustainer! Thou hast indeed bestowed upon me something of power, and hast imparted upon me some knowledge of the inner meaning of happenings. Originator of the heavens and the earth! Thou art near unto me in this world and in the life to come: let me die as one who has surrendered himself unto Thee ( as a Muslim) and join me with the righteous.

Men to adopt chastity

Surah An – Nur, 24:30

قُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ذَلِكَ أَزْكَى لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ

Qul-lil-Mu’-miina yaghuz-zuu min ’absaarihim wa yahfazuu furuujahum: zaalika ’azkaa lahum: ’In-nal-laaha khabiirum-bimaa yasna-‘uun.
30. Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and to be mindful of their chastity: this will be most conducive to their purity - (and) verily, God is aware of all that they do.

Women to adopt chastity and veil (Hijab) before a non-Mahram

Surah An – Nur, 24:31

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَائِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَائِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَائِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ أَوِ التَّابِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُوْلِي الْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ أَوِ الطِّفْلِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَى عَوْرَاتِ النِّسَاء وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Wa qul-lil-Mu’minaati yaghzuzna min ’absaarihin-na wa yahfazna furuujahun-na wa laa yubdiina ziinatahun-na ’il-laa maa zahara minhaa wal-yaz-ribna bi-khumurihin-na ‘alaa juyuubihinn; wa laa yubdiina ziinatahun-na ’il-laa libu-‘uulatihin-na ’aw ’aabaaa-’ihin-na ’aw-‘aabaaa-’i bu-‘uulatihin-na ’aw ’ab-naaa-’ihin-na ’aw-abnaaa-i bu-‘uulatihin-na ’aw ’ikhwaanihin-na ’aw baniii ’ikhwaanihin-na ’aw baniii ’akhwaatihin-na ’aw nisaaa-’ihin-na ’aw maa malakat ’aymaanu-hun-na ’awit-taabi-‘iina ghayri ’ulil-’irbati minar-rijaali ’awit-tiflil-laziina lam yaz-haruu ‘alaa ‘awraatin-nisaaa’: wa laa yazribna bi-‘arjulihin-na liyu‘-lama maa yukhfiina min-ziinatihinn. Wa tuubuuu ’ilal-laahi jamii-‘an ’ay-yuhal-Mu’-minuuna la‘al-lakum tuflihuun.
31. And tell the believing woman to lower their gaze and be mindful of their chastity, and not to display their charms (in public) beyond what may (decently) be apparent thereof; hence, let them draw their head - coverings over their bosoms. And let them not display (more of) their charms to any but their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or their sisters sons, or their woman folk, or those whom they rightfully possess, or such male attendants as are beyond all sexual desires, or children that are as yet aware of women’s nakedness; and let them not swing their legs (in walking) so as to draw attention to their hidden charms.
And (always), O you believers - all of you - turn unto God in repentance, so that you might attain to a happy state!

The above verses of Surah Nur, 24:30-31 are clear in what they mean and the legislation they lay down regarding men and women’s duties regarding the use of veil and guarding their chastity. Islam therefore does not prohibit woman to come out from the four walls of her home but prohibits her exposing her ornaments or adorning the parts of her body, to other than those who are mentioned in the exceptional clause.

The Holy Prophet (S) has cursed the husband who agrees to his wife getting adorned and going out exposing her beauty to the others.

The Holy Prophet (S) has said:

“‘You give me the guarantee for six things on your behalf and I will guarantee your getting Paradise for your eternal abode.

1. To speak always the truth.

2. To fulfil your promise.

3. To discharge faithfully a trust.

4. To guard your private parts against any forbidden use.

5. To be away from the forbidden acts.

6. Guard yourself against consuming the forbidden or ill-earned food or drink.”

Hijab

Surah Al – Ahzab, 33:59

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاء الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Yaaa ’ay-yuhan-Nabiy-yu qul-li’azwaajika wa banaatika wa nisaaa-’il-Mu’-miniina yudniina ‘alayhin-na min jalaabii-bihin-na; zaalika ’adnaaa ’ay-yu‘rafna falaa yu’-zayn. Wa kaanal-laahu Ghafuurar-Rahiimaa.
59. O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters, as well as all (other) believing women, that they should draw over themselves some of their outer garments (when in public): this will be more conducive to their being recognised (as decent women) and not annoyed. But (withal) God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of Grace!

Under this injunction every believer woman has been commanded to wear an over-garment or a covering mantle so that their feminine beauty might not attract the attention of men to stimulate evil intentions for a covering on the body of a woman would also indicate that the woman is pure, chaste, modest and the one pure in character and would never tolerate the least overtures or disregard to her chaste womanhood and consequently even the worst character will not dare cast even an evil look on such chaste ones and going without such a protection is indirectly inviting overtures and encouraging romance towards them. Refer to Surah An-Nur, 24:30-31 and 58.

Trust

Surah Al – Ahzab, 33:70-72

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا

Yaaa ’ay-yuhal-laziina ’aamanut-taqul-laaha wa quuluu qawlan-sadiidaa:
70. O you who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God, and (always) speak with a will to bring out (only) what is just and true -

يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَن يُطِعْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

Yuslih lakum ’a‘-maalakum wa yagh-fir lakum zunuubakum: wa may-yuti-‘il-laaha wa Rasuulahuu faqad faaza fawzan ‘aziimaa.
71. (whereupon) He will cause your deeds to be virtuous, and will forgive you your sins. And (know that) whoever pays heed unto God and His Apostle has already attained to a mighty triumph.

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنسَانُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولًا

’In-naa ‘araznal-’Amaanata ‘alas-Samaa-waati wal-’Arzi wal - Jibaali fa-’abayna ’ay-yahmil-nahaa wa ’ash-faqna minhaa wa hamalahal-’Insaan: ’In-nahuu kaana zaluuman-jahuulaa;-
72. Verily, We did offer the trust (of reason and violation) to the heavens and the earth and the mountains: but they refused to bear it because they were afraid of it. Yet man took it up - for verily, he has always been prone to be most unjust, most ignorant.

This verse on ‘Trust’ is a serious issue on the application of the knowledge of the spirit of the Holy Qur’an. What God offered to the heavens and the earth and the mountains who rejected it, could not be anything simple or ordinary. It must be something very serious, grave and important, the acceptance of which would naturally carry a great reward and the failure to discharge it will also be very grave.

In Surah al-Hashr, 59:21:

“‘Had We bestowed this Qur’an from on high upon a mountain, thou wouldst indeed see it humbling itself, breaking asunder for awe of God....’ And (all) such parables We propound unto men, so that they might (learn to) think.’”

the sending down of the Holy Qur’an on the mountain is referred, but in a hypothetical sense and the concluding words of the verse say that it is a parable used for people to reflect, which means that such expressions are not to be taken in the literal sense but must be studied with the inner or latent meaning treasured in them for its correct interpretation. It is said that the heavens and the earth and the mountains, (i.e. every creature other than man) refused to accept the offer, i.e. in other words, they expressed their inability to accept the responsibility. It could be possible that these creations with all their greatness in size, did not think it possible for them to discharge it, although the reward for discharging it, could be something equally great and glorious.

We see that everything in the celestial and the terrestrial world known to us, works like an automation without any personal choice of change or alteration in its respective activity, and this must be that much which they accepted to work and that which they rejected or begged to be excused to accept, must be the otherwise, i.e. the faculty of choice which is obviously and manifestly found only in Man. No doubt this is the great Trust for it is really a task to hold the independence of choice in this world of innumerable powerful distractive attractions and yet to choose the right course of fulfilling the Will of the Creator Lord, by avoiding the strong pull from the innumerable powerful temptation and being steadfast on the right way.

Man has been too audacious to accept the offer with the ignorance of the difficulties in discharging the ‘Trust’. Thus man with his ignorance accepted it and subjected himself to the toil of discharging it, thus he as ‘Zaloom’ i.e. one who is the most unjust to himself in subjecting himself to the task and ‘Jahool’ i.e. the one most ignorant of the responsibility while undertaking it. It is presently seen that having taken the responsibility most of mankind have failed to discharge it and became hypocrites and disbelievers and have earned the wrath of God, while some of them proved totally faithful to the trust and true to their accepting it and entitled themselves to the special and exclusive Grace and Mercy of the Lord.

In Surah al-Baqarah, 2:30-34, is mentioned of this criterion in which man was declared superior to the angels. Man was taught the Names (of certain beings) which even the angels did not know. It clearly infers that the angels were asked if they were prepared to bear the burden of the divinity reflected through the divine entities displayed to them, which they could not.

Therefore the destiny made available to Man was the greatest, the highest, the most glorious one any mortal could ever have, and God endowed in man the great receptive qualities to get the divine attributes reflected in him and at the same time left to him also the choice of getting deviated by the distractions or to rise into the heights of the divine regions avoiding the fall into the abyss of degradation and humility.

But, man did not then realise what a tremendous task he was undertaking nor did he ever consider whether he would be able to rise equal to it, i.e. man basically failed to measure his own power to achieve the task or to assess his own knowledge of the great responsibility he was undertaking, hence he being referred to as ‘Zaloom’ and ‘Jaloom’ i.e. unjust and ignorant.

It is this great and unique undertaking which entitled man to be the Vicegerent of God on earth. mentioned in Surah al-Baqarah, 2:30:

(recollect O Our Apostle Muhammad) When said thy Lord unto the angels: “Verily I (intend to) appoint a vicegerent in the earth” they said, “Wilt Thou (O our Lord!) appoint therein one who will cause mischief and shed blood, while we celebrate by Thy praise and hallow Thee alone?” Said (the Lord to the angels) “Verily, I know what ye know not.””

Fasting

Surah Baqarah, 2:183

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Yaaa -’ayyu - hallaziina aamanuu kutiba ‘alay-kumus-Siyaamu kamaa kutiba ‘alal-laziina min-qablikum la-’allakum tatta-quun.
183. O you who have attained to faith! Fasting has been ordained for you as it was ordained for those before you, so that you might remain conscious of God.

Allah (swt) has said in Hadith al Qudsi that:

“The fast is for Me, and I shall give its reward.”

Fasting is the only act of worship which consists of a negative aspect only, for example, not eating - not drinking etc. while all other acts of worship, like prayer and pilgrimage, giving of charity etc consist of positive actions or are made up of positive and negative aspects. The positive actions cannot be absolutely pure in showing the worshipper’s spirit of servitude or the Lordship of Almighty Allah (swt). It cannot be free of materialistic imperfections and limitations, and sometimes it may be done to please someone other than Allah (swt) (as in the case of hypocrisy and showiness). But fasting is an act of worship in which one has just to abstain from lust and desire and restrain oneself from worldly matters. This negative aspect is a thing which nobody can know except Allah (swt). It is a dealing entirely between the servant and his Lord, and therefore this worship is purely for Allah (swt); others can have no share in it. The servant worshipped Him in a way that nobody knew but Allah (swt), so he will be given its reward in a way that nobody will know it but Allah (swt).

Jihad

Surah At – Tawbah, 9:38-39 and 41

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الأَرْضِ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الآخِرَةِ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ

Yaaa-’ay-yu-hal-laziina ’aamanuu maalakum ’izaa qiila lakumun-firuu fii Sabii-lil-laahith-thaaqal-tum ’ilal-’arz? ’A-raziitum bil-hayaa-tid-dunyaa minal-’Aakhirah? Famaa mataa-‘ul-hayaa-tid-dunyaa fil-’Aakhirati ’il-laa qaliil.
38. O you who believe! What (excuse) have you that when it is said to you: “go forth in Allah’s cause,” you should incline heavily to earth? Are you contended with this worldly life in preference to (the good of) the life to come? But the enjoyment of life in this world is but a paltry thing when compared with the life to come!

إِلاَّ تَنفِرُواْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلاَ تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

’Il-laa tanfiruu yu-‘az-zibkum ‘azaaban ’aliimanw-wa yas-tabdil qaw-man ghayra-kum wa laa tazur-ruuhu shay-aa. wal-laahu ‘alaa kul-li shay-’in-Qadiir.
39. If you do not go forth to war (in God’s cause), He will chastise you with grievous chastisement, and will place another people in your stead - whereas you shall in no wise harm Him: for, God has the power to will anything.

انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً وَجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

’Infiruu khifaafanw - wa thiqaalanw - wa jaa-hiduu bi’amwaa-likum wa ’anfusikum fii Sabii-lil-laah. Zaalikum khayrul-lakum ’in - kuntum ta ‘ -lamuun.
41. Go forth to war, whether it be easy or difficult (for you) and strive hard in Allah’s cause with your possessions and your lives; this is for your own good - if you but knew it!

Man must not postpone the doing of good deed and worship of his Creator

Surah Ya Sin, 36:68

وَمَنْ نُعَمِّرْهُ نُنَكِّسْهُ فِي الْخَلْقِ أَفَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ

Wa man-nu-‘am-mirhu nunak-kis-hu fil-khalq: ’afalaa ya‘-qiluun?
68. But (let them remember always that) if We lengthen a human being’s days, We cause him to decline in his powers (when he grows old): will they not, then, use their reason?

Man should never postpone his exercise of moral choice - for if human beings are superior creatures inasmuch as they have been endowed with the faculty of discernment and a wide measure of free will, let them also remember that “man has been created weak” Surah an-Nisa, 4:28 and liable to decline still further in old age, hence the time at his disposal is short.

Essential to defend against oppression but not to the extent of being an Oppressor

Surah Ash – Shura, 42:40-43

وَجَزَاء سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ

Wa jazaaa-’u say-yi-‘atin-say-yi-’atum-mithluhaa faman ‘afaa wa ’aslaha fa-’ajruhuu ‘alal-laah: ’in-nahuu laa yuhib-buz-zaalimiin.
40. But (remember that an attempt at) requiting evil may, too, become an evil: Hence whoever pardons (his foe) and makes peace, his reward rests with God - for, verily, He does not love evildoers.

وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ

Wa lamanin-tasara ba‘-da zulmihii fa-’ulaaa-’ika maa ‘alayhim-min-sabiil.
41. yet, indeed, as for any who defend themselves after having been wronged - no blame whatever attaches to them:

إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ أُوْلَئِكَ لَهُم عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

’In-namas-sabiilu ‘alal-laziina yaz-limuu-nan-naasa wa yabghuuna fil-’arzi bighayril-haqq. ’Ulaaa-’ika lahum ‘Azaabun ’aliim.
42. blame attaches but to those who oppress (other) people and behave outrageously on earth, offending against all right: for them there is grievous suffering in store!

وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

Wa laman-sabara wa ghafara ’in-na zaalika lamin ‘azmil ’umuur.
43. But withal, if one is patient in adversity and forgives - this, behold, is indeed something to set one’s heart upon!

Spoils of ‘Fie’ i.e. Property - Wealth etc. obtained without a fight

Surah Al – Hashr, 59:7-8

مَّا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاء مِنكُمْ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Maaa ’afaaa-’al-laahu ‘alaa Rasuulihii min ’ah-lil-Quraa falil-laahi wa lir-rasuuli wa lizil-qurbaa wal-yataamaa wal-masaa-kiini wab-nis-sabiil kay laa yakuuna duulatam-baynal-’agh-niyaaa-’i minkum. Wa maaa ’aataakumur-Rasuulu fa-khuzuuhu wa maa nahaakum ’anhu fantahuu. Wat-taqul-laah; in-nal-laaha Shadiidul-‘Iqaab.
7. Whatever (spoils taken) from the people of those villages God has turned over to His Apostle - (all of it) belongs to God and the Apostle, and the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, so, that it may not be (a benefit) going round and round among such of you as may (already) be rich. Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the Apostle gives you (thereof), and refrain from (demanding) anything that he withholds from you; and remain conscious of God: for, verily, God is severe in retribution.

لِلْفُقَرَاء الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ

Lil-fuqaraaa-il-Muhaajirii-nal-laziina ’ukhrijuu min-diyaarihim wa ’amwaali-him yabtaghuuna Fazlam-minal-laahi wa Rizwaa-nanw-wa yansu-ruunal-laaha wa Rasuulah: ’ulaaa-ika humus-
Saadiquun;-
8. (Thus, part of such war-gains shall be given) to the poor among those who have forsaken the domain of evil: those who have been driven from their homelands and their possessions, seeking favour with God, and (His) goodly acceptance, and who aid (the cause of) God and His Apostle: it is they, they who are true to their word!

This verse clearly lays down the formula giving out the classes of the beneficiaries whom the property of ‘Fie’ or spoils of war obtained without a fight, has to be distributed. It is earmarked for God, for the Holy Prophet (S), the kith and kin of the Holy Prophet (S) (Sa’daat) i.e. Bani Hashim, the orphans, the needy and the wayfarers. The warriors are not entitled to any share in the ‘Fie’ for the reason that there was no necessity of their services.

The reason for this allotment by God is given saying that what was restored to the Holy Prophet (S) without any fight might not also be taken away by the other people to enrich themselves further while the poor among the near of kin to the Holy Prophet (S) on whom ‘Sadaqa’ and other such alms from the others are forbidden.

Unfortunately, this verse is misinterpreted to say that the reason was not to allow the Holy Prophet’s (S) share to be inherited at all. Here the Holy Qur’an expressively asserts that the property restored to the Holy Prophet (S) without the efforts of the Muslims, does not go to the public treasury.

It goes to people specified in this verse. The Holy Prophet (S) distributed the lands of the Jews restored among the Mohajirs who had left their property at Mecca and were a burden on the Ansars, the inhabitants of Medina. By the order of God, he therefore gave ‘Fadak’ to his daughter Fatima (a) in the same manner he gave to the other Mohajirs. Thus ‘Fadak’ was handed over to his daughter during his lifetime. However, history is proof of what happened after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S), where it was claimed that this was a part of the ‘Baitul-Mal’ or public treasury.

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