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A Glossary of Terms

• A'alam The Mujtahid considered most knowledgeable.

• A’immah Plural of Imam, leaders, as in: A’immah Ma'sumeen (the twelve Infallible Leaders).

• 'Aadil The just individual

• 'Aaqil The sane person

• 'Abaa’ah The cloak like over garment worn by the Holy Prophet and traditionally by 'Ulamaa’.

• Adaa’ A current duty, like a prayer whose time is current.

• 'Adaalah The quality of being just.

• Aghsaal Baths, the plural of Ghusl.

• 'Ahd Covenant, agreement.

• Ahkaam Legal rulings, laws. Plural of Hukm.

• Ahlul-Bait The near relatives of the Holy Prophet (S) mentioned in Qur’an (33:33) as the Ahlul-Bait (AS). They are Imam 'Ali, Fatimah Az-Zahraa’, Imam Al-Hassan and Imam Al-Husain, peace be upon them all.

• Ahlul-Kitaab “People of the scripture” a Qur’anic term used for Christians and Jews.

• Ajnabi/Ajnabiyain Unrelated individuals or two unrelated individuals.

• Al-Adillah Al-Arba' The four evidences, namely: 1) the Holy Qur’an; 2) the Sunnah or custom of the Holy Prophet (S) and his infallible successors (AS); 3) Ijma' or the consensus of the 'Ulamaa’ and 4) 'Aql or reasoning.

• Al-Haakim Ash-Shar'i The Religious Authority or judge.

• Al-Hamd Surah Al-Fatihah, the opening chapter of the Holy Qur’an, literally, “the Praise.”

• Al-Mahdi The awaited Imam (AS), the last in the chain of twelve A’immah whose presence is concealed until the last days.

• 'Amaamah A turban.

• Amaanaat A trust. Something placed in the care of another.

• Ameerul-

• Mu’mineen An honorary title of Imam 'Ali (AS), “Leader of the Believers

• 'Araqul-

• Hayawaanil-Jallaal The sweat of an impurity eating camel.

• Arkaan Pillars (as in pillars of prayer), plural of Rukn.

• Awliyaa’ A title given to those who are deemed nearest to Allah. Also Awliyaa’ Allah.

• 'Awraat Private parts.

• Ayatullah Al-'Uzma A Grand or senior Ayatullah.

• Aynun-Najaasah An actual source of impurity, like blood.

• Azaan The Islamic call to prayer.

• Azra' A measurement equal to about a arm's length.

• Baa’in The irrevocable divorce.

• Baaligh A person reaching the age of legal maturity, a minimum of 10 years for girls and a maximum of 16 years for boys.

• Basmallah The recitation of Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Raheem “In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.”

• Bi’r A well.

• Buloogh Legal maturity as defined by Islamic law.

• Daa’imah The woman married in a permanent marriage. Also, the permanent marriage.

• Dayn A financial obligation or debt.

• Dharoori Imperative, necessary.

• Dinaar A gold coin used in Muslim countries.

• Dirham A silver coin used in Muslim countries

• Diyah Blood money given as compensation for accidental injuries and death and other reasons.

• Dua' Supplication, prayer.

• 'Eid Day of celebration, holiday.

• 'Eidul-Adhha The holiday commemmorating the Prophet Abraham's intended sacrifice of his son, Ismaa’il on the 10th of Zil-Hijjah.

• 'Eidul-Fitr The holiday commemmorating the end of the month long fasting of the month of Ramadhaan on the 1st of Shawwal.

• 'Eidul-Ghadeer The holiday commemmorating the appointment of Imam 'Ali (AS) as the successor of the Holy Prophet on the 18th of Zil-Hijjah.

• Fadheelah The time of increased of reward in prayers.

• Fajr Morning time before sunrise.

• Faqeer A poor person, meaning one who does not have his yearly expenses on hand nor the means to earn it properly.

• Faraa’idh The obligatory acts.

• Farsakh/Faraasikh A unit of measure equal to approximately 5.4 Kilometers or 3.4 miles.

• Faskh Invalidation of a contract or agreement.

• Fatimah Fatimah Az-Zahraa’(AS), the beloved daughter of the Holy Prophet (S) and one of the 14 Infallibles.

• Fiqh Islamic law and jurisprudence.

• Fitrah An obligatory charity in the amount of one Saa’ of food (3 Kilograms/6.6 Pounds) given to the needy on 'Eidul-Fitr.

• Fuqqaa' A type of beer made from barley and similar things.

• Furoo' A branch, as in a branch of religion, Furoo'ud- Deen, meaning the practical aspects of faith.

• Ghaa’it Stool.

• Ghair-e-Mu'ayyin Unspecified, left undetermined.

• Ghasbi Usurped, taken or used without ownership or proper permission of the owner.

• Ghayth Rain, rain water.

• Ghulaat The extremist who claimed that Imam 'Ali (AS) was God, they are considered to be non-Muslims.

• Ghusl A bath according to Islamic law.

• Ghuslul-Amwaat The bathing of the deceased. Actually comprised of three separate baths which are obligatory before burial.

• Haa’idh The woman experiencing menstrual bleeding.

• Haidh Menstruation.

• Hajj Pilgrimage to the Holy Ka'abah in Makkah to perform specific rites and ceremonies.

• Halaal Lawful, permissible.

• Haraam Forbidden, unlawful.

• Hawaalah Note of exchange, promissory note.

• Hijaab Islamic covering for women.

• Hijri Related to the Islamic calendar.

• Howzah/Howzaat Theological institutions and religious centers.

• Hunoot/Tahneet Applying camphor to a deceased person.

• Husainiyyah A building used to hold religious gatherings such as mourning sessions or Majaalis-e-Azaa’.

• Hussain The famous grandson of the Holy Prophet who was martyred unjustly in Iraq 50 years after the Prophet's death.

• 'Iddah Voluntary seclusion of a woman for a certain period of time after her husband proclaims the divorce or after her husband's death.

• Ihraam A state wherein certain acts are prohibited as when performing the pilgrimage and in prayer.

• Ijaab One of the two essential elements of a contract ('Aqd): the consent. The other element is the acceptance or Qabool.

• Ijaarah To rent, hire or lease something or someone.

• Imaamah Leadership or the office of leadership.

• Imamiyyah One of the names of the Shi'ah sect, meaning that it is related to the Imam.

• Infallibles Those who are counted as pure and faultless in Shi'ah theology. They include the Prophet Muhammad (S), his daughter Fatimah, (AS), her husband Imam 'Ali, their two sons, Al-Hasan and Al-Hussain (AS) and the nine descendants of Al- Hussain (AS), the last of which is Imam Al-Mahdi (AS), whose reappearance we anxiously await.

• Inqilaab The purification of wine due to the evaporation of two thirds of it when heated.

• Intiqaal The transfer of an impurity, namely blood, from one person or animal to another person by means of an insect.

• Iqaamah Part of the call to prayer recited to announce the actual beginning of the prayer.

• Irtimaasi Immersion, as Ghusl Irtimaasi, an immersion bath.

• Ishkaal An objection or area of concern.

• Istibraa’ The process of removing urine and semen from the urinary tract. Also, to quarantine an impurity eating animal until its system becomes clean again.

• Istihaadhah Irregular bleeding in a woman not associated with menstruation (Haidh) or childbirth (Nifaas).

• Istihaalah Purification due to the physical change of the impure substance into another substance.

• Ithna 'Ashari Twelve. UsuallyShi'ah Ithna 'Ashari, meaning one who follows the Holy Prophet (S) and the twelve Infallible A’immah.

• Iwadhain The two items exchanged in a contract of sale, i.e., the commodity (Muthman)and the payment (Thaman).

• Izaar Outer covering of the burial shroud or Kafan which covers the entire body.

• Jaari Flowing, as in Maa’ul-Jaari or flowing water.

• Jabeerah A bandage, cast, splint and similar things which cover a wound or breakage.

• Jallaal An animal contaminated by eating human feces in particular.

• Janaabah The state of ritual impurity resultant from sexual intercourse or discharge of semen.

• Jimaa' Sexual intercourse.

• Junub The person in the state of Janaabah or ritual impurity.

• Ka'abah The House of Allah, the Holy Sanctuary built by the Prophet Abraham in Makkah. The place which Muslims pray towards daily and where the pilgrimage (Hajj) is performed.

• Kaafir A non-Muslim.

• Kaafoor Camphor.

• Kafan The burial shroud.

• Kaffaarah An atonement, usually for the lapse of one's duties or inability to perform a certain obligation.

• Kalb Dog.

• Kampayaalah Promissory Note.

• Kanz Treasure.

• Khala' The type of divorce in which the woman returns her dowry or gives the husband some other property in exchange for his granting her divorce.

• Khamr Wine.

• Khawaarij An early deviant sect which rebeled against Imam 'Ali (AS) during his rule. They are ruled as non- Muslims.

• Khinzeer Pig.

• Khiyaar A right of invalidation in a contract or agreement.

• Khol Antimony, used for strengthening the eyes.

• Khums An obligatory tax on excess wealth.

• Khutbah A sermon.

• Kufah A city in 'Iraq, once the seat of government during the rein of Imam 'Ali (AS)

• Kurr A measurement of volume equal to approximated 102 US Gallons.

• Luqtah A lost property.

• Ma'soomeen The Inafflibles (ref.: Infallibles)

• Ma'zoor Excused, as one who is excused from fasting, for example.

• Ma’tam A ritual of mourning.

• Mab'ath The time when the Prophet (S) publicly announced his mission as a Prophet to the people of Makkah at the age of 40.

• Mabtoon A person afflicted with a gastronomic illness that prevents him from hold back his stool properly.

• Maghrib The time of sunset.

• Mahr A dowry.

• Mahr Mithl A standard dowry.

• Mahram A related person. One who it is not permissible to marry due to blood relation or family affinity.

• Maitah An animal which has died on its own without proper slaughtering.

• Makkah The birth place of the Prophet of Islam (S) and location of the Ka'abah, the direction toward which Muslims pray.

• Makrooh A disliked action according to Islamic law but not unlawful.

• Maniy Semen.

• Mann (Tabreezi) A unit of weight used in Iran equivalent to 2.94 Kg/6.48 Lbs.

• Masjid A Mosque.

• Masloob Crucified.

• Masloos A person afflicted with a urinary disorder which leaves a person unable to control their urine.

• Massil-Mayyit Touching a dead body.

• Matar Rain or rain water.

• Mayyit A dead body or deceased person.

• Mi’zar A loin cloth. One of the three parts of the burial shroud or Kafan.

• Mihraab A niche in the wall of a Mosque in which the Imam usually stands facing toward the Qiblah.

• Miskeen A destitute and needy person.

• Miswak A toothbrush made from a twig that is chewed until soft and pliable.

• Mithqaal (Ma'mooli) A common Mithqaal, approximately 4.68 grams.

• Mu’ajjir The lessor or property owner in a lease/rental agreement or Ijaarah.

• Mu'aamalah A transaction, meaning a transaction of property like a sale, rental, loan, etc.

• Mubaah Something which is lawful due to the fact that it does not have a formal ruling in Islamic law.

• Mubaara’ah An irrevocable divorce in which both husband and wife desire a divorce.

• Mubtadi’ah The female who is experiencing menstrual bleeding for the first time.

• Mudd A measurement equivalent to approximately 1.7 Lbs or 350 Kgs.

• Mudhaaf Mixed water.

• Mudhaarabah A silent partnership where one person gives a sum of money to another to transact an agreement in exchange for an agreed upon portion of the proceeds of the transaction.

• Mudhtaribah A woman who has an irregular or disturbed habit of menstrual bleeding.

• Muhtadhir A person in the grasp of death.

• Mujtahid An Islamic jurist capable of independent derivation of legal rulings from the Islamic sources of law.

• Mukallaf/

• Mukallafeen One deemed as responsible and accountable under Islamic law.

• Muqridh Lender.

• Murtahin The one accepting a security or Rahn, like a pawnbroker.

• Muskir A liquid intoxicant, like wine, beer, whiskey, etc.

• Mustahaadhah A woman having irregular bleeding or Istihaadhah.

• Mustahabb/

• Mustahabbaat Recommended acts.

• Mustahiqq One eligible and worthy of charities like Sadaqah, Zakah and Khums.

• Mustaqridh Borrower.

• Musta’jir Lessee, renter.

• Mutahhir/Mutahhiraat Something capable of purifying an impure substance, like water.

• Mut'ah Temporary or fixed term marriage.

• Mutanajjis Something which is contaminated by an impurity although not possessing the source of the impurity itself.

• Muthman The commodity in a sales agreement.

• Mutlaq Water Pure Water

• Muwaalaah Continuity, meaning that actions must be performed with continuity and continuation.

• Naafilah/Nawaafil A voluntary prayer.

• Naasiyah The woman who has forgotten her established custom in menstruation.

• Nabiy A Prophet.

• Nafsaa The woman having bleeding due to childbirth.

• Nairooz The Persian new year.

• Nahr The method of slaughtering a camel.

• Najaasah/Najasaat An impure substance according to Islamic law, like blood and urine.

• Najis Something containing Najaasah or an impurity.

• Nasee’ah A credit transaction.

• Nasibi Those who bore open emnity to the Ahlul-Bait (AS) in general and Imam 'Ali (AS) in particular.

• Nazar Viewing, looking, for example, a man looking at a woman.

• Nazr A vow.

• Nifaas Bleeding which a woman experiences after childbirth.

• Nikaah Marriage.

• Nisaab A established minimum quantity used for calculating Zakah and Khums payments.

• Niyyah Intention in matters of worship.

• Qabdh To take possession of something.

• Qabool One the essential elements of a contract or agreement. It is the acceptance of an offer or consent to transact. The consent is called Ijaab.

• Qadhaa’ The performance of a duty which has lapsed unperformed, like a prayer which was not performed in its proper time.

• Qadhiy A judge in an Islamic court.

• Qaleel Water A small quantity of water that is less than a Kurr or 102 US Gallons.

• Qamees Literally, a shirt. One of the three pieces making up the death shroud or Kafan.

• Qardh A loan.

• Qardhul-Hassanah An interest free loan.

• Qasam An oath.

• Qiblah The direction of the Holy Ka'abah, the direction to which Muslims pray.

• Qiraa’ah Recitation of the Holy Qur’an.

• Qiyaam The standing position in prayer.

• Qunoot The supplication made in prayer in the 2nd Raka'ah.

• Quraish The tribal group of the Holy Prophet

• Qurbah The intention to perform a duty only for the sake of Allah, to gain nearness to Him and fulfill one's duty.

• Raahin The one who gives property as a security.

• Rahn Property given as a security.

• Raj'I The revocable divorce.

• Ra’sul-Maal The principle, meaning the sum which is invested.

• Raka'ah One cycle in prayer.

• Ramadhaan One of the holy months on the Islamic calendar in which Muslims fast during the day time hours.

• Rasheed A attribute given to the person who is reasonable in that he knows what is in his advantage and disadvantage.

• Ribaa Interest.

• Rujhaan An inclination toward one direction or another.

• Rujoo' The right of the husband, in a revocable divorce, to return to his wife and cancel the divorce process.

• Rukn A pillar of prayer.

• Rukoo' The bowing position in prayer.

• Sabirtu Spirit, commercial alcohol.

• Sayyid/Sadaat A descendant of the Bani Haashim (the Prophet's family branch of the Quraish tribe). Also, the descendants of the Infallibles.

• Safeeh An incompetent person in Islamic law. One who is incapable of managing his affairs, particularly financial affairs. Islamic law generally regards the transactions which the Safeeh engages in to be invalid.

• Sahm A share, as in the two shares of Khums, Sahm Al- Imam and Sahm As-Sadaat (the share of the Imam and the share of the descendants of the Prophet).

• Sajdah Sahw Two prostrations that are performed to rectify some inadvertent mistakes committed during the prayer, like forgetting one prostration.

• Sakk A note or check.

• Salaf An advance payment transaction.

• Salatul-Wahshah A special voluntary prayer for a deceased which is performed on the night of his burial between Maghrib and 'Ishaa’.

• Salatul-Ayaat The Sign Prayer, an obligatory prayer performed upon the occurrence of eclipses, earthquakes and other extraordinary natural occurrences.

• Salatul-'Asr Mid-afternoon prayer.

• Salatul-'Eid Prayers of the two high celebrations of 'Eid (Ref: 'Eid).

• Salatul-Fajr The morning prayer, also called Salatus-Subh.

• Salatul-Ihtiyaat The prayer of precaution, performed when one has doubt in the number of Raka'ah performed.

• Salatul-'Ishaa’ The evening prayer said after sunset when the sky darkens.

• Salatul-Istisqaa’ The prayer for rain.

• Salatul-Jamaa'ah Congregational prayer.

• Salatul-Jumu'ah Friday Prayer.

• Salatul-Lail The late night prayer, usually performed after sleeping and before the morning prayer.

• Salatul-Maghrib The sunset prayer.

• Salatul-Mayyit The prayer for the deceased. Also called Salatul- Amwaat.

• Salatul-Musaafir The prayer of the traveler, meaning a prayer shortened from four Raka'ah to two Raka'ah due to traveling.

• Salatush-Shaf' Two Raka'ah prayer which is part of the eleven Raka'ah of the late night prayer (Salatul-Lail).

• Salatuz-Zuhr The noon time prayer.

• Salawaat To send salutations and prayers upon the Prophet Muhammad (S) and his family. Also, the plural of Salah.

• Sarqufali Key money. An arrangement in a lease/rental agreement where an individual reserves the priority in rental of a property in exchange for a sum of money.

• Sayyid/Sayyidah Male/female descendant of one of the twelve A’immah.

• Seeghah A verb formula used in executing contracts and agreements, like sales contracts, marriage, etc.

• Shaakhis A stick used to determine the time of Zuhr and 'Asr prayer by measuring the shadow that it casts.

• Shahaadatain The recitation of the two fundamental beliefs of a Muslim: I bear witness that there is no God except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad (S) is His Messenger!

• Shaheed A Martyr.

• Shakk Doubt.

• Sidr The leaf of the Lotus tree which is used in one of three baths given to a deceased Muslim.

• Suhoor An early morning meal before beginning the fast at Fajr time.

• Sujood Prostration.

• Surah A chapter of the Holy Qur’an.

• Ta'qeebaat The actions which follow the prayer.

• Taahir Pure according to the Islamic law.

• Tab'iyyah Subordination. The idea that one thing will become pure when another thing becomes pure, for example, one's hands will become pure when the impure cloth which one is washing becomes pure.

• Tahaarah Purification. Cleanliness and purification according to Islamic law, including Wudhu’ and Ghusl.

• Tahajjud Another name for the late night prayer (Salatul- Lail).

• Tajweed The science of proper recitation of the Holy Qur’an.

• Takbeer/Takbeeraat Saying: Allahu Akbar ”Allah is the Greatest.” Repeated frequently in the prayer.

• Takfeen The process of wrapping the Islamic death shroud or Kafan.

• Takfeer Folding the hands in prayer.

• Tallaaq Divorce.

• Taqiyyah Hiding of one's faith to avoid danger or persecution.

• Taqleed Following a Mujtahid in matters pertaining to the practical laws of Islam.

• Tarteeb Sequence, proper order.

• Tasbeeh Glorification, praise

• Tasbeehaat Al-Arba' The Zikr recited in the third and fourth Raka'ah of prayer in place of Surah Al-Hamd.

• Tashahhud The recitation of the Shahaadatain in the prayer.

• Taubah Repentance.

• Tawaaf To circle, make a circle around something. To circle around the Holy Ka'abah as one of the rites of the pilgrimage.

• Tawheed The Unity of Allah, the concept that Allah is One without an partners or peers.

• Tayammum Dry purification used as a substitute of Wudhu’ and Ghusl for specific reasons.

• Tayyibul-Walaadah Legitimate birth, meaning that the parents of a child were married at the time of the conception of a child.

• Thaman The payment in a sales transaction.

• Turbah Soil, dirt.

• 'Ulamaa’ Scholars, plural of 'Aalim.

• Ummah The Muslims worldwide, the Muslim nation.

• 'Umrah The Lesser pilgrimage, a shortened pilgrimage.

• Usool Fundamental principles as in the Usoolud-Deen, the Fundamentals of Faith.

• Waajib-e-'Ayni An individual obligation like praying and fasting.

• Waajib-e-Kifaayah A type of obligation which is incumbent upon Muslims as a whole, not individually. Like the burial of a fellow Muslim. Whoever buries the Muslim removes the obligation from the remainder of the community. However, if no one comes forward to take care of the obligation, the Muslims will have committed a sin.

• Waajib-e-Takhyeeri An obligation which has an option to follow it or another obligation. For example, one can pray Friday Prayer or Salatuz-Zuhr, one has the choice between two obligations.

• Waaqif A person donating property as an Islamic Trust.

• Wakeel A representative.

• Waliy Legal guardian, like a father, grandfather.

• Waliyul-Amr The Guardian of the affairs of Muslims. The position of the top Religious Authority.

• Waqf An Islamic Trust.

• Wasiyah A will.

• Waswaas Literally, the whispering of satan. Also, excessive doubts which occur to people.

• Witr The one Raka'ah prayer that is part of the late night prayer (Salatul-Lail).

• Wudhu’ A ritual of purification necessary before prayer and other acts of worship which require purification. Involves washing the face, arms from the elbows to the fingers, wiping the head and feet. Also called ablution.

• Yaa’isah The woman who has reached the age of fifty which Islamic law regards as menopausal or unable to bear children. The age is sixty for women of the Quraish tribe.

• Yameen An oath.

• Zaatul-'Aadatil-

• 'Adadiyyah A woman possessing a regular custom in the number of days with regard to her menstrual cycle.

• Zaatul-'Aadatil-

• Waqtiyyah A woman possessing a regular custom relating to the start of her menstrual cycle.

• Zakah An obligatory and, sometimes recommended, charity given on animals, agriculture and gold and silver.

• Zakatul-Fitr An obligatory charity given to the poor after the month of fasting (Ramadhaan).

• Zann Assumption, less than certain knowledge.

• Zawaal The time when the sun passes its zenith and begins to decline. Marks the beginning of the noon prayer or Salatuz-Zuhr.

• Zhimmi One of the people of the scriptures or Ahlul-Kitaab that resides in a Muslim country and, therefore, protected by Islamic law.

• Zikr The recitation of glorification and praise of Allah, the Exalted.

• Ziyaarah/Ziyaaraat Literally, to visit. Used primarily in the meaning of the visitation of the graves of the Infallibles, may peace be upon them.

• Zuhr Noon time or the noon-time prayer (Salatuz- Zuhr).

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