The struggles during the first stage begin with great difficulties. This stage covers the eras of Imam Sajjad (as), Imam Baqir (as) and some part of the era of Imam Sadiq (as). The event of Karbala not only had greatly shaken the pillars of Shiism, but also the foundations of the world of Islam in general.
Although assassination, persecution, torture and oppression were not unprecedented, the assassination of the sons of the Prophet, taking the members of the Progeny of the Messenger of God as captives, taking them from one city to another, and raising the head of the dear son of Zahra (sa) on a sword - at a time when there were still many people who remembered the Prophet kissing his lips - in effect, astonished the world of Islam.
No one could imagine that the unfolding of events would go that far. A couplet attributed to Hazrat Zaynab (SA) in fact underlines this public astonishment "O my dearest, I could never imagine that such a destiny would await you."1
All of a sudden a sea change was felt in the political landscape. The restrictions went beyond the imagination. Unconceivable events unfolded and as a result, horror engulfed the entire world of Islam, except Kufa, thanks to the presence of the Tawwabun (repentant people) and Mukhtar's upheaval. Despite the fact that Abdullah ibn Zubair led an insurgency in Mecca sometime after the episode of Karbala, the horror engulfing Medina and other places due to the event of Karbala was unprecedented in the world of Islam.
Although the movement of Tawwabun and the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (as) and his companions -- apparently in 64-65 H. -- injected a fresh blood into the muffled atmosphere of struggle in Kufa and Iraq, the martyrdom of all the members of this movement once again caused the intensification of the atmosphere of suppression and horror.
Thereafter, the enemies of the Umayyad System, that is, "Mukhtar" and "Musab ibn Zubair" waged wars against each other, while Abdullah ibn Zubair from Mecca could not even tolerate Mukhtar who was a supporter of the Progeny of the Prophet of Islam in Kufa and finally Mukhtar was killed by Musab. Consequently, the atmosphere of fear intensified and disappointment spread in every nook and cranny. Shortly after Abdul Malik had come to power, the entire world of Islam came under the control of the Umayyad. Abdul Malik ruled powerfully for 21 years.