‘Allamah Hillī was fated to establish a close relationship with Iran. We know that the concept of ‘Iran’ acquired currency in literary, historical, and political literature in the era of the Ilkhanids. The ‘Allamah’s relations were established with Iran due to the religious sentiments of Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah and his conversion to Shī‘ism.
The ‘Allamah lived for some time in Iran and stayed for a period at the king’s court and wrote books in his name and in the defense of Shī‘ism. In a brief treatise entitled Bayan al-Haqayiq that Rashīd al-Dīn Fadl Allah wrote in the year 709/1309 concerning ziyarah in a reply to a question posed by ‘Allamah Hillī, he mentions ‘Allamah Hillī with the words ‘‘mawlana al-mu‘azzam malik al-hukama’ wa al-Mashayikh, yaganeh wa dastur-e Iran.1’’
The term dastur here is in the sense of an important personality whose word is considered authoritative. The ‘Allamah’s presence in Iran was after the time when Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah developed a keen interest in a debate between Islamic creeds, and the ‘Allamah was invited as a Shī‘ī scholar to participate in these debates. Following Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah’s interest in Shī‘ism, the station of the ‘Allamah and his son rose and the ‘Allamah remained for a period in the Sultan’s court.
Elsewhere we have given a description of ‘Allamah Hillī’s presence in these debates and the ‘Allamah writings on the issues of kalam and their dedication to the Sultan2. That which is significant for the present study is the presence of the ‘Allamah in Iran and his journeys to various Iranian towns. To be certain, the ‘Allamah was in Iran in the year 709/1309. Moreover, that which can be gathered from the treatise of Rashīd al-Dīn is that the ‘Allamah gave an ijazah to Taj al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Mawla Zayn al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Qadī ‘Abd al-Wahid Razī in the RAbu‘ al-Thanī of this year3.
The ‘Allamah was also in Iran in the year 712/1312, for his book al-Alfayn was finished in the city of Jurjan in the Ramadan of 712/13124. The ‘Allamah also issued an ijazah in Waramīn for Qutb al-Dīn Razī, an outstanding Shī‘ah philosopher and scholar, in the Sha‘ban of 713/13135. From certain isnad it appears that the ‘Allamah was for a time in Qum, where he heard hadīth. The said isnad is mentioned in the book ‘Awalī al-La’alī of Ibn Abu Jumhur.
There the isnad given, from the ‘Allamah upwards, is as follows: ‘‘Qala haddathanī al-Shaykh al-‘Allamah al-fahhamah, ustadh al-‘ulama’, Jamal al-Dīn Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn al-MuTahhar, qala, ruwītu ‘an Mawlana Sharaf al-Dīn Ishaq ibn Mahmud al-Yamanī bi-Qum, ‘an khalihī Mawlana ‘Imad al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Fathan al-Qummī, ‘an al-Shaykh Sadr al-Dīn al-Sawī.6’’ Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah established a mobile madrasah, named Madrasah Sayyarah, consisting of the ‘Allamah and many scholars of that era, and they would move about from place to place in the company of the Sultan7.
During the lifetime of ‘Allamah Hillī and his son, Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn8, (682-771/1283-1369), a number of Iranians came to him for learning, and besides studies under him they would engage in making copies of his books which were transferred to Iran. Here we will mention some of the pupils of ‘Allamah Hillī and Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.
1. Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Balku ibn ‘Ali Awī. He possessed an ijazah from the ‘Allamah and his son, dated 705/1305. He has written a manuscript of the Nahj al-Balaghah in 732/1331 at Isfahan9.
2. Jamal al-Dīn Iskandar Istarabadī, pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn10.
3. Taj al-Dīn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnawī Kashanī, one of the pupils of ‘Allamah Hillī. In an ijazah that he wrote for his son in the year 763/1361 on the back of a manuscript of the ‘Allamah’s book al-Qawa‘id, he mentions himself as being a pupil of the ‘Allamah11.
4. Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Baha’ al-Dīn Sarabeshnawī, a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Jamadī al-Awwal 715/131512.
5. Husayn ibn Ibrahīm ibn Yahya Istarabadī. He possessed an ijazah from the ‘Allamah dated Safar 708/130813.
6. Sharaf Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Tusī, one of the pupils of ‘Allamah Hillī, who possessed an ijazah from him dated Dhu al-Hijjah 704/1305 and written on a manuscript of the Irshad al-Adhhan14.
7. Hamzah ibn Hamzah ibn Muhammad ‘Alawī Husaynī. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn wrote his book Tahsīl al-Najat on doctrine (uSul al-dīn) in the year 736/1335 for him. The following remark is mentioned in the book about the place of his residence: ‘‘Hamzah ibn Hamzah al-‘Alawī al-mutawattin bi qaryati Sharīfabad min nahiyati Jast min a‘mali Qum,’’ showing that he was a resident of Sharīfabad, in the vicinity of Qum15.
8. Sayyid Haydar Amulī, the famous Shī‘ī mystic and philosopher. According to what he has mentioned in his own exegesis, al-Muhīt al-a‘zam, having studied at Amul he proceeded to Khurasan, and then to Istarabad and Isfahan, and thereafter, after spending twenty years in Amul he set out for hajj and ultimately settled down in Najaf. He possessed two ijazahs from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn dated 759/1357 and 761/135916. At Najaf he also had Iranian disciples including NaSīr al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, who had been born at Kashan and settled down at Hillah and was buried at Najaf17.
9. Fakhr al-Dīn Haydar ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Bayhaqī. Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn wrote his al-Risalah al-Fakhriyyah in his name18.
10. Taj al-Dīn Abu Sa‘īd ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad Kashī. A pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, he had studied the ‘Allamah’s Tabsirat al-Muta‘allimīn under him and was given by him an ijazah dated Rabu‘ al-Thanī 759/135819.
11. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Rashīd Awī, a pupil of the ‘Allamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated Rajab 705/Dec. 1305-Jan. 1306.
12. Sadr al-Dīn Abu Ibrahīm Muhammad ibn Ishaq Dashtakī. He possessed an ijazah from the ‘Allamah dated 15 Jamadī al-Awwal 724/1324 written on a manuscript of the Qawa‘id20.
13. Rukn al-Dīn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Jurjanī Istarabadī, a resident of Hillah and translator of Khwajah Nasīr al-Dīn Tusī’s book al-Fusul al-Nasīriyyah from Persian into Arabic. He was a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī and commentator of one his works21.
14. Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyarī Amulī, one of the pupils of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn who possessed an ijazah from him dated 745/134422.
15. Qutb al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Razī. He possessed an ijazah from the ‘Allamah written in the year 713/1313 at Waramīn, near Ray23.
16. Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Hilal Awī. He possessed an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn dated 705/130524.
17. Taj al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahid Razī. A pupil of the ‘Allamah, he possessed an ijazah from him dated 709/130925.
18. Badr al-Dīn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Tabarī, a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī26.
19. Nizam al-Dīn Mahmud Amulī, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn27.
20. Diya’ al-Dīn Harun ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali Tabarī, he possessed an ijazah from the ‘Allamah dated 17 Rajab 701/130228.
21. Zayn al-Dīn ibn ‘Ali ibn Husayn Istarabadī, a pupil of Radī al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Yusuf, brother of ‘Allamah Hillī, who also possessed an ijazah from him and copied some of ‘Allamah Hillī’s works29.
22. Husayn ibn Ardashīr ibn Muhammad Tabarī, a pupil of Najīb al-Dīn Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Sa‘īd Hillī. He also possessed an ijazah from him dated 677/127830..
At present there exist a large number of manuscripts of the works of the ‘Allamah on fiqh and kalam pertaining to the eighth/fourteenth and ninth/fifteenth centuries which were either written in Iran or by Iranians residing in Iraq. Many of these persons were either pupils of ‘Allamah Hillī or had become familiar with his thought through Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn.
Hasan ibn Hamzah Najafī wrote a manuscript of ‘Allamah’s Irshad al-Adhhan in the year 837/1433. He has written an ijazah on the back of the same manuscript indicating that his teacher was Zayn al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Hasan Istarabadī, a pupil of Hasan ibn Diya’ al-Dīn A‘raj, who was a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, who in turn was a pupil of his father, ‘Allamah Hillī31.
Here we will mention some of these manuscripts.
1. Irshad al-Adhhan: There is a manuscript of it in the hand of Hasan ibn Husayn Sabzawarī dated 718/131832. Another manuscript, in the hand of Burhan al-Dīn Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Mahmud al-Faqīru Qummī, is dated 730/1329, parts of which are in Persian33. Other manuscripts of this work are as follows:
1. by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali Tabarī, dated 73634.
2. by Majd al-Dīn ibn Sharaf al-Dīn ibn Mughīth al-Dīn Isfahanī, dated 77235.
3. by Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Husayn Hajī Asadabadī, dated 799, written at Istarabad36.
4. by Sa‘īd ibn Ja‘far ibn Rustam Jurjanī, dated Jamadī al-Thanī 772; it exists at the Khawansarī Library at Najaf37.
2. Tahrīr Al-Ahkam al-Shar‘iyyah: Its manuscripts are as follows:
5. by Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahanī, dated 23 RAbu‘ al-Awwal 759.
6. by Husayn (or Hasan) ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Istarabadī, dated 28 Sha‘ban 726.
7. by Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Hasan Sarabeshnawī, written at Bab al-Wardah, Kashan, and dated 22 Jamadī al-Awwal 735.
8. by Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, dated 24 Safar 737, and acquired in Rajab 762 by Muhammad ibn Ni‘mat Allah ‘Aqda’ī.
9. Another manuscript of this book bears a note by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Amulī and is dated 752. Another manuscript in the hand of Sultan Hasan Husaynī is dated 833 and it was read in the presence of Zayn al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Hasan Istarabadī. Another in the hand of ‘Imad ibn ‘Ali Jurjanī is dated 12 Safar 86038.
3. IstiqSa’ al-Bahth wa al-Nazar fī Masa’il al-Qada’ wa al-Qadar: A manuscript of it is in the hand of the Shī‘ī philosopher and mystic, Sayyid Haydar Amulī, a pupil of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn39.
4. Al-Alfayn: A manuscript of it exists in the hand of Muhammad ibn Ahmad Makhluf Madanī written in 853 in the city of Sarī in the province of Mazandaran40..
5. Idah al-Maqasid min Hikmat ‘Ayn al-Qawa‘id: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ja‘far Istarabadī is dated 70741.
6. Tabsirat al-Muta‘allimīn: A manuscript of it bears a note, dated RAbu‘ al-Thanī 759, by Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, stating that the book had been read to him by Abu Sa‘īd Kashī (mawlana al-a‘zam afzal al-muhaqqiqīn Sultan al-hukama’ wa al-mutakallimīn Abu Sa‘id ibn al-imam al-sa‘īd ‘Imad al-Dīn Yahya ibn al-imam al-sa‘īd Fakhr al-Dīn Ahmad Kashī). There he remarks that he had benefited more from Abu Sa‘īd than the latter had benefited from him (wa kanat al-istifadatu minhu akthara min al-ifadatī lahu)42.
7. Al-KhulaSah fī ‘Ilm al-Kalam: A manuscript of it is in the hand of ‘Ali ibn Hasan ibn Radī ‘Alawī Husaynī Sarabeshnawī and is dated Dhu al-Hijjah 716 (at the end of the manuscript there is a note by ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Ishaq ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Fathan Wa‘iz Qummī Kashanī, dated Jamadī al-Thanī 80443.)
8. Risalah al-Sa‘diyyah: A manuscript of it, dated Rabu‘ al-Thanī 764, was written at ArdAbul44. Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Majd al-Dīn Sadīd ManSurī Istarabadī is dated 865. Another was completed on 22 Ramadan 881 in Isfahan45.
9. Ghayat al-Wusul wa Idah al-Subul: A manuscript of it, in the hand of Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Malik Tabarī and dated RAbu‘ al-Awwal 704 (this date coincides with the lifetime of ‘Allamah Hillī), was written at Sultaniyyah46.
10. Qawa‘id al-Ahkam fī Ma‘rifat al-Halal wa al-Haram: A manuscript of it by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Husaynī Dashtakī, a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī, was written in the year 703 at the Madrasah Sayyarah and at the end he writes that the copy, made from the original, was completed on Tuesday, 22 RAbu ‘al-Awwal in the year 713 at Sultaniyyah in the Ilkhanid Madrasah, known as Sayyarah. At the end it bears the note: ‘‘faragha al-mustansikh min al-asl yawm al-thulatha al-thanī wa al-‘ishrīn min RAbu‘ al-Awwal sinah 713, bi al-Sultaniyyah, shayyada Allahu arkana dawlati banīha fī al-madrasat al-sharīfah al-Ilkhaniyyah al-musammat bi al-Sayyarah)47. Another manuscript, written by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahdī ibn Mukhlis Qummī, is dated 7 Ramadan 71848. Another manuscript, dated 7 Safar 728, is in the hand of Husayn ibn Abu al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Kashanī. Another manuscript bearing the date 732 is in the hand of ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu al-Majd Khawarazmī. Another in the hand of ‘Ali ibn Fakhr al-Dīn Abu Talib Tabarī is dated 746 (at the end of the manuscript there is an ijazah in the hand of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn for the scribe, dated 760 and written at Hillah. This is indicative of the presence of Iranian students in the lectures of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn)49.
Another manuscript in the hand of Fadl Allah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Qummī and dated 814 was written at Najaf. Another, in the hand of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Haydar ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Tahir ibn Mansur Muqri’ Kashanī, is dated Shawwal 849 (an ijazah is written at its end in the hand of Ahmad ibn Mu‘īn ibn Humayun ibn ‘Ali al-Kashī written at Kashan50.)
Other manuscripts of this book written by scholars residing in Iran in the ninth/fifteenth century consist of: the manuscript written in 854 by Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman Tabarī; the manuscript written in 859 by ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Istarabadī; the manuscript written in 880 by Muhammad ibn Hasan Isfahanī; the manuscript written by Mu‘īn ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali... ibn Daniyal al-Ruhqī in 898 at Kashan51. (There exist more than seventy manuscripts of the Qawa‘id al-Ahkam written until the ninth/fifteenth century, something which is indicative of the large number of Shī‘īs who used it in different towns.)
The Qawa‘id al-Ahkam of ‘Allamah Hillī was translated once in 732/1331 in a period of ten months. The translator, Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu ‘Abd Allah, known as Hajī, was apparently a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī himself. A sole manuscript of it, written in 780, exists at Madrasah Khayrat Khan, Mashhad52.
11. Kashf al-Murad fī Sharh Tajrīd al-I‘tiqad: A manuscript of it by one of the pupils of the ‘Allamah was written in the Madrasah Sayyarah. Another manuscript by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Mahmud ibn Muhammad Amulī (d. 753/1352), a pupil of ‘Allamah Hillī, was written for his teacher at the Madrasah Sayyarah and finished on Friday, 20 Muharram 713, in the city of Kirmanshah53. There are two other manuscripts of this book, one by Muhammad ibn Muhammad Isfandyarī Amulī was written in 745 and was read to Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn, and the other, by Abu Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Turab Waramīnī, was written in 71654.
12. Mabadi’ al-Wusul ila ‘Ilm al-Usul: A manuscript of it in the hand of Harun ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali Tabarī is dated Sha‘ban 700 (with a note in the ‘Allamah’s hand on it). Another manuscript in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn ‘Abd Allah Balku ibn Abu Talib, one of the pupils of the ‘Allamah, is dated Ramadan 703 and is accompanied with an ijazah of the author for the scribe, dated 70555.
13. Mukhtalaf al-Shī‘ah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Ibrahīm ibn Yusuf Istarabadī is dated 702. Another manuscript in the hand of Muhammad ibn Abu Talib Awī is dated 704. One manuscript in the hand of Ja‘far ibn Husayn Istarabadī is dated Ramadan 70556. Another one in the hand of Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn Yahya Farahanī is dated 733. Another manuscript in the hand of Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Badr Razī is dated Shawwal 73757.
14. Marasid al-Tadqīq wa Maqasid al-Tahqīq: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Awī, dated Jamadī al-Awwal 710, was written at Sultaniyyah. It is accompanied by an ijazah from Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqīn (this manuscript was in the possession of Fath Allah ibn Khawajagī Shīrazī Ansarī and was gifted by him to his son Humam al-Dīn Muhammad in 767/1365)58
15. Manahij al-Yaqīn: A manuscript of it in the hand of ‘Ali ibn Hasan Tabarī is dated Sha‘ban 72459.
16. Minhaj al-Salah fī IkhtiSar al-Misbah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Tabarī is dated Shawwal 7360.
17. Minhaj al-Karamah fī Ithbat al-Imamah: A manuscript of it in the hand of Kamal al-Dīn ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Sa‘īd Jurjanī is dated Rajab 878 and bears a gloss written in Arabic and Persian between the lines61. (There is a translation of this book related to 8th/14th or 9th/15th century existing at the Farhad Mu‘tamad Library and is mentioned in the periodical Nuskhehha-ye khattī, published by Tehran University62.)
18. Nihayat al-Ihkam fī Ma‘rifat al-Ahkam: A manuscript of it was written at the Madrasah Sultaniyyah63.
19. Nahj al-Mustarshidīn: A manuscript of it in the hand of Shams al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Abu Talib ibn al-Hajj Muhammad ibn Hasan Awī is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Jamal al-Dīn Abu al-Futuh Ahmad ibn Abu ‘Abd Allah Balku Awī, is dated 705. Another, in the hand of Ahmad ibn Buzbash Dezfulī, is dated 82464.