The Pupils of Shaykh Tusī
The first point that draws our attention pertains to the
Iranian pupils of Shaykh Tusī. It should be noted that some of the pupils
of Shaykh Mufīd and Sharīf Murtada were Iranians who were also later
on pupils of Shaykh Tusī or his contemporary scholars. Among these
contemporaries of the Shaykh is ‘Abd al-Jabbar Razī, to whom we shall
refer later. Another was Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Daylamī (d.
446/1056), who came from Tabaristan and was a close disciple of Sharīf
Murtada and who at times taught in his teacher’s stead. He was the teacher
of many Arab and Iranian scholars and a contemporary of Abu al-Salah HalAbu—or
his teacher, according to some scholars. It is said that when the people of
Halab approached him for fatwa he would refer them to Abu al-Salah. His
grave is at Khusrow Shah near Tabrīz, a point which is itself
indicative of his visits to Iran.
Al-Hakīm gives biographical accounts of forty persons
from among the pupils of Shaykh Tusī. Many of them had obvious Iranian
names and nisbahs pertaining to their native towns. Among them one finds such
names as Qummī, Nayshaburī, Jurjanī, Amulī, as well as
Nasafī, Marwazī, Qazwīnī and Abī. His non-Iranian
pupils were from Iraq and Syria. Possibly some of them might have settled down
in Iraq but were of Iranian origin, although it is possible that some of them
came from families of Arab descent settled in Iran, such as the Hamdanīs
of Ray and Qazwīn, as well as the Khuza‘īs who had settled in Iran
for centuries. Some of them have left works in Arabic and Persian. It has been
said about ‘Abd al-Jabbar ibn ‘Ali Razī that he had writings on fiqh in
Arabic and Persian. It appears that their first generation wrote in Arabic
but gradually they came to write books in Persian as well. Muhammad ibn Husayn
Muhtasib, one of the teachers of Muntajab al-Dīn, was the author of the
book Ramishafza-ye Al-e Muhammad, a ten-volume work in Persian.
As to the Iranian pupils of Shaykh Tusī, among them
- Adam ibn Yunus Nasafī. According to Ibn Hajar,
Muntajab al-Dīn mentioned him in the book Rijal al-Shī‘ah
al-Imamiyyah and considered him a pupil of Shaykh Tusī.
- Ahmad ibn Husayn ibn Ahmad Khuza‘ī Nayshaburī.
He was the father of ‘Abd al-Rahman Mufīd, more of whom will be said
later on. Ahmad was among the pupils of Sayyid Murtada, Sayyid Radī
and Shaykh Tusī who settled down in Ray. He is the author of several
works, such as an Amalī in four volumes, ‘Uyun al-Ahadīth,
al-Rawdah in fiqh, as well as other works including al-Arba‘īn
‘an al-Arba‘īn fī fada’il Amīr al-Mu’minīn (‘a).
- Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh Qummī
and his brother.
- Isma‘īl ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Husayn ibn
Babawayh Qummī. According to Muntajab al-Dīn, these two were
among narrators of the works of Shaykh Tusī and themselves authors of
books in Arabic and Persian.
- Hasan ibn Husayn ibn Babawayh Qummī, known as Hasaka
(resident of Ray). He was the grandfather of Muntajab al-Dīn, the
author of al-Fihrist, and the Shaykh of many Shī‘ī scholars of Iran
during the sixth/twelfth century. He had a school (madrasah) at Ray about
which ‘Abd al-Jalil writes that ‘‘the school of Shams al-Islam Hasaka
Babawayh, the Senior preceptor of this sect (pīr-e īn Ta’ifeh)
is near the Sarai Ayalat and is a place for the holding of congregational
prayers, recitations of Qur’an, and Qur’anic instruction of children and
sessions of preaching and wa‘z.’’ Among his pupils was Abu ‘Ali Tabrisī.
Another pupil of his is his own son, ‘Ubayd Allah, father of Muntajab al-Dīn.
‘Ubayd Allah narrated the works of Tusī through his father. An ijazah
by Shaykh Hasan ibn Husayn Duryastī (settled at Kashan) indicates
that he had the ijazah to narrate the Shaykh’s MabsuT through ‘Ubayd
Allah, from his father, from Shaykh Tusī, and the same chain of
transmission is given for an Arab scholar named Shaykh Murshid al-Dīn
Abu al-Husayn ‘Ali ibn Husayn Surawī. Another pupil of Hasaka was
Sayyid Rida ibn Da‘ī ‘Aqīqī Mashhadī.
- Husayn ibn Muzaffar ibn ‘Ali Hamdanī Qazwīnī
(resident of Qazwīn) (d. 498/1104). According to Muntajab al-Dīn,
for thirty years he had studied all the works of Shaykh Tusī under
him. Rafi‘ī writes that he travelled to Iraq where he was a pupil
of some of the scholars. Among his pupils were Sayyid Talib ibn ‘Ali
ibn Abu Talib Abharī Faqīh, Sayyid ‘Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad
Ja‘farī Qazwīnī (Shaykh al-Talibiyyah fī waqtih)
and Sayyid Abu al-Barakat Muhammad ibn Isma‘īl Mashhadī, and
Amīrka ibn Abu al-Lajīm Qazwīnī ‘Ijlī
(belonging to the Shī‘ī ‘Ijlī family residing at Qazwīn).
- Sayyid Dhu al-Fiqar ibn Muhammad ibn Ma‘bad Hasanī
Marwazī. He was a pupil of Shaykh Tusī and Sayyid Murtada.
Muntajab al-Dīn writes, ‘‘I saw him when he was one hundred and fifteen
years old.’’ At some time he had travelled to Damascus where he was
seen by Ibn ‘Asakir who mentions him as ‘‘one of the Rafidīs.’’
He was among the teachers of Sayyid Fadl Allah Rawandī and Qutb
- ‘Abd al-Jabbar ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Ali Muqri’ Razī, known
as Mufīd. Muntajab al-Dīn refers to him as the faqīh of the
Shī‘ah of Ray (faqīh aShabina bi al-Ray) and says that he was a
pupil of Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz and Ibn Barraj. After being at
Baghdad he returned to Ray where he engaged in training students and,
according to ‘Abd al-Jalil, had four hundred pupils. ‘Abd al-Jalil
writes that ‘‘in the madrasah of Khwajah ‘Abd al-Jabbar Mufīd four
hundred scholars of fiqh and kalam receive lessons of the Sharī‘ah.’’
In that case he must have been one of the important links between the
schools of Baghdad and Najaf and the Iranian Shī‘ī community.
Muntajab al-Dīn writes that he had works on fiqh in Arabic and
Persian, but we do not know their titles. Abu ‘Ali Tabrisī,
author of the Majma‘ al-Bayan, was his pupil as mentioned by himself.
Sayyid Tayyib ibn Hadī Shajarī, belonging to the Shajarī
Sayyids of Iran, was also his pupil.
- ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Husayn Mufīd Nayshaburī
Khuza‘ī. The Khuza‘ī family was one of the outstanding learned
families of the day in Ray. Apart from the fact that the father of ‘Abd
al-Rahman was a pupil of Sharīf Murtada and Shaykh Tusī, his
uncle, Muhsin ibn Husayn Khuza‘ī, was author of several books.
Muntajab al-Dīn writes that he travelled east and west and heard
traditions from Shī‘ī and Sunnī scholars (al-mu’alif wa
al-mukhalif). Among his works were an Amalī, ‘Uyun al-Akhbar, Safinat
al-Najat, etc. He had studied under Shaykh Tusī, Sharīf Murtada,
Sharīf Radī, Karajakī, Ibn Barraj, Sallar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz,
and Shaykh Abu al-Muzaffar Layth ibn Sa‘d Asadī, a resident of
Zanjan, and ‘Abd al-Baqī KhaTib BaSrī and benefited as
well from the teaching of some pupils of Shaykh Tusī such as Abu Sa‘d
Mansur Abī. He was a narrator of Abu al-Salah HalAbu’s work,
al-Kafī, from its author. ‘Abd al-Jalil writes about him, ‘‘The
khwajah and faqīh, ‘Abd al-Rahman Nayshaburī, whose books,
writings, pen and pronouncements are held in great esteem by Islamic
sects.’’ ‘Abd al-Rahman was an uncle of the father of Abu al-Futuh Razī,
author of the famous exegesis, and he formed one of the original links of
propagation of Shī‘ī learning of Iraq, especially that of Shaykh
Tusī, among Iranian Shī‘ah. After studies he returned to Ray
where he managed a mosque. Two of his pupils were Murtada and Mujtaba,
sons of Da‘ī ibn Qasīm Hasanī, through whom Muntajab al-Dīn
possessed the ijazah of narration from ‘Abd al-Rahman Mufīd Nayshaburī.
Muntajab al-Dīn also possessed an ijazah through the same Murtada to
narrate the traditions and works narrated by Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Hibat
Allah ibn ‘Uthman MawSilī. In the tradition in which his name is
mentioned, the date of narration of the hadīth through him is
mentioned as 476/1083 and the place of narration as his mosque in Ray.
To him is attributed the TabSirat al-‘Awam, the old Persian work on here
biography (firaq wa madhahib), an attribution which has rightly been
- ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Samad Tamīmī Sabzawarī
Nayshaburī. He was the ancestor of the famous family of scholars of
the sixth/twelfth century, one of whom was the author of the book Dhakhīrat
al-Akhirah, a work in Persian on supplications which has been edited and
published by this author. ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Samad and his sons and
grandsons are mentioned in many chains of authorities (isnad) which we
shall mention later on.
- Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Fattal Nayshaburī, author of the
book Rawdat al-wa‘izīn and a Qur’anic commentary; the latter work is
mentioned repeatedly by ‘Abd al-Jalil along with other outstanding Shī‘ī
exegeses such as the Tibyan and the Majma‘ al-Bayan. Muntajab al-Dīn
refers to him in two places, once in relation to his tafsīr and
in another place where he mentions the Rawdat al-wa‘izīn. Muhaddith
Urmawī, on the basis of Ibn Shahr Ashub’s introduction to his
Manaqib, where he mentions Fattal as one of his teachers, believes that
these two entries relate to one person. Aqa Buzurg Tehranī writes
that he narrated from Shaykh Tusī.
- Muntaha ibn Abu Zayd Husaynī Jurjanī Kajjī.
Muntajab al-Dīn mentions several individuals of this family. ‘Abd
al-Jalil writes that Sayyid al-Muntaha al-Jurjanī ‘‘was killed openly
by the renegades’’ (‘malahidah,’ i.e. the Isma‘īlīs) and at
another place he writes that the Isma‘īlīs killed him in public,
as well as Abu Talib Kiya (at Qazwin) and Sayyid Kiya Jurjanī, whose
corpse was disentombed and burnt by them because they were Shī‘īs.
He was among the teachers of Ibn Shahr Ashub and he mentions him with the
name, Muntaha ibn Abu Zayd ibn Kiyabakī (Kiyasakī or Kaysakī)
Husaynī Jurjanī. Probably he might have met Shaykh Tusī
for, as mentioned by Afandī, his father, Sayyid Abu Zayd ‘Abd Allah
Husaynī Jurjanī, was a pupil of Sharīf Murtada and Sharīf
- ManSur ibn Husayn Abī, the minister of the Buwayhids.
Muntajab al-Dīn mentions him among the pupils of Shaykh Tusī.
He is the author of the precious literary work Nathr al-durr, which has
been published in seven volumes.
 Al-‘Amilī, al-Sayyid Muhsin, A‘yan al-Shī‘ah (Beirut:
Dar al-Ta‘aruf, nd.), 11 vols., vol. 7, p. 171.
 Al-Tehranī, Aqa Buzurg, Al-Dharī‘ah ila
tasanīf al-Shī‘ah (Mu’assasah-ye Matbu‘atī-ye Isma‘īliyan,
nd.), 25 vols., vol. 1, p. 74
 Such as Imam Abu al-Faraj Hamdanī, his son Shaykh
Husayn Hamdanī, Imam Abu Sa‘īd Hamdanī, known as Nasir
al-Dīn (see ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī Razī, Naqd (Tehran:
Anjuman-e Athar-e Millī, 1358 H. Sh.) ed., Muhaddith Urmawī, p. 210) and
Burhan al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Hamdanī Qazwīnī (see
Majlisī, Bihar al-Anwar (Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Wafa’, 1403) 110 vols.,
vol. 104, p. 128, the ijazah of the ‘Allamah to Banu Zuhrah).
 Muntajab al-Dīn ‘Ali ibn Babawayh Razī,
al-Fihrist (Qum: Maktabah Ayatullah Mar‘ashī, 1366), ed. Muhaddith Urmawī
and Samamī Ha’irī, p. 75, no. 220.
 Ibid., p. 108, no. 394
 Ibid., p. 34, no. 6.
 Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalanī, Lisan al-Mīzan (Beirut:
Dar al-Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabu, 1416) ed. Mar‘ashlī, vol. 1, p. 512.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 32, no. 1.
 Ibid., p. 30
 Ibid., p. 33, no. 4
 ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī, op. cit., p. 34.
 Karīman, Tabrisī wa Majma‘ al-Bayan (Tehran: Tehran
University, 1360 H. Sh.), vol. 1, pp. 290-291.
 Afandī, Mīrza ‘Abd Allah, Riyad al-‘ulama’ wa
hiyad al-fudala’ (Qum: Maktabah Ayatullah Mar‘ashī, 1401), ed. Sayyid
Ahmad Ashkewarī, vol. 1, p. 179.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 64, no. 164.
 Ibid., p. 47, no. 73.
 Al-Rafi‘ī, al-Tadwīn fī Akhbar
Qazwīn (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1408), ed. ‘Azīz Allah
‘Utarudī, vol. 2, p. 462.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op, cit., p. 73, no. 207.
 Ibid., p. 80, no. 337.
 Ibid., p. 106, no. 387.
 Al-Rafi‘ī, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 316.
 See Urmawī, the endnotes to Muntajab al-Dīn’s
al-Fihrist, pp. 176-183.
 Concerning Dhu al-Fiqar’s narration from Shaykh
Tusī, see Rawandī, Qisas al-Anbiya’ (Mashhad: Bunyad-e Pazhuhishha-ye
Islamī 1409), ed. Ghulam Rida ‘Irfaniyan, p. 142.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 62, no. 157; see
also p. 42, no. 54.
 Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarīkh Dimashq (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr,
1415), vol. 17, p. 329. He writes that Dhu al-Fiqar considered himself to have
been born in the year 455/1063 at Marw. Should this date be correct, he should
not be considered a pupil of Sharīf Murtada (d. 436/1044) or even that of
Shaykh Tusī (d. 460/1067).
 See Rawandī, Dīwan al-Sayyid al-Imam Diya’
al-Dīn Abu al-Rida al-Hasanī al-Rawandī (Tehran: Maktabat
al-Majlis, 1334 H. Sh.), ed. Muhaddith Urmawī, the editor’s introduction,
 Rawandī, Qisas al-Anbiya’, p. 73.
 ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī, op. cit., p. 210.
 Ibid., p. 35.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 75, no. 220.
 Al-Tabrisī, Majma‘ al-Bayan (Sidon), vol. 3, p.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 73, no. 208.
 Ibid., p. 101, no. 360.
 Ibid., p. 75, no. 219.
 Ibid., p. 99, no., 348.
 Ibid., p. 76, no., 225.
 Ibid., p. 105, no., 376.
 Ibid., p. 44, no. 60.
 ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī, op. cit., p. 144.
 See for instance, Muntajab al-Dīn , op. cit., p.
106, nos. 385, 386.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., p. 106.
 Ibid., p. 76, no. 224.
 ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī, op. cit., p. 495.
 Tabsirat al-‘Awam (Tehran: AsaTīr 1364 H. Sh.),
ed. ‘Abbas Iqbal, ‘‘Introduction.’’
 Dhakhīrat al-Akhirah (Qum: Intisharat-e AnSariyan,
1375 H. Sh.), ed. Rasul Ja‘fariyan.
 Muntajab al-Dīn, op. cit., no. 108, by the name
Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Fattal Nayshaburī.
 Ibid., p. 126, by the name Shaykh Shahīd Muhammad
ibn Ahmad, al-Farisī. It is probable that there were two books with the
title Rawdat al-Wa‘izīn, one by Fattal Nayshaburī and another by
 Ibid., endnotes, pp. 436-437.
 Al-Tehranī, al-Thiqat al-‘Uyun fī Sadis
al-Qurun (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Arabiyyah, 1975), p.. 275
 Ibid., pp. 103-104.
 ‘Abd al-Jalil Qazwīnī, Naqd, p. 210.
 Ibid., p. 131.
 See Al-Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 12.
 Afandī, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 229.
 Muntajab al-Dīn , op. cit., p. 105, no. 376.