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List of Abbreviations Employed in the Footnotes and in the Bibliography

Azdi ‑ al‑Azdi, Yazid b. Muhammad, Tarikh al‑Mawsil, Cairo, 1387/1967.

B. Firaq ‑ al‑Baghdadi, ‘Abd al‑Qahir, al‑Farq bayn al‑Firaq, Beirut, 1393/1973.

al‑Bidaya ‑ Ibn Kathir, Isma'il b. Umar, al‑Bidaya wal‑Nihaya, 14 vols., Beirut, 1386/1966.

Bihar ‑ al‑Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al‑Anwar, 110 vols., Tehran, 1375­1395/1956‑1975.

B. Sahih ‑ al‑Bukhari, Muhammad b. Isma'il, al‑Jami al‑Sahih, Leiden, 1862‑1908.

Dala'il ‑ al‑Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir b. Rustam, Dala'il al‑Imama, Najaf, 1369/1949.

D. Sunan ‑ al‑Sajistani, Abu Dawud,Sunan Abi Dawud, Cairo, 1370/1951.

Fakhri ‑ Ibn al‑Taqtaqi, Muhammad b. Ali, al Fakhri fi al‑Adad al‑Sultaniyya, Cairo, 1345/1929.

Fasl‑ Ibn Hazm, Ali b. Muhammad, al‑Fasl fial‑Milal wa‑I‑Ahwa' wa‑l‑Nihal, Cairo, 1317‑21

al‑Fusul alAshara ‑ al‑Mufid, Muhammad b. al‑Numan, al‑Fusul alAshara fi al-Ghayba, Najaf, 1371/1951.

al‑Fusul al‑Mukhtara ‑ al‑Murtada, al‑Fusul al‑Mukhtara min alUyun wal‑Mahasin lil‑Mufid, 2 vols., Najaf, 1966.

Ibar ‑ Ibn Khaldun, alIbar wa diwan al‑Mubatada' wal‑l‑Khabar, 7 vols., Cairo, 1284‑7/1867‑70.

Ikhtiyar ‑ al‑Kashshi, Muhammad b. 'Umar, Ikhtiyar Marifat al‑Rijal, Mashhad, 1972.

Ilal ‑ al‑Saduq, Muhammad b. Ali, Ilal al‑Shara'i, Najaf, 1385/1966.

al‑Irshad ‑ al‑Mufid, Muhammad b. al‑Numan, al‑Irshad, Najaf, 1972; English translation, Balagha Books, 1981.

Ithbat ‑ al‑Masudi, Ali b. al‑Husayn, Ithbat al‑Wasiyya, Najaf, 1955.

J. Wuzara' al‑Jahshayari, Muhammad b. Abdus, Kitab al‑Wuzara' wal‑Kuttab, Cairo, 1357/1939.

al‑Kafi ‑ al‑Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub, al‑Kafi fi Ilm al‑Din, 6 vols., Tehran, 1381/1961.

Kamal ‑ al‑Sadnq, Muhammad b. Ali, Kamal al‑Din wa Tamam al‑Nima, Tehran, 1395/1975.

al‑Kamil ‑ Ibn al‑Athir, Izz al‑Din Ali, al‑Kamil fi al‑Tarikh, 9 vols., Leiden, 1851-­76.

Khatib ‑ al‑Khatib al‑Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, 14 vols., Cairo, 1349/1931.

Kindi ‑ al‑Kindi, Muhammad b. Yusuf, Kitab Wulat Misr, Beirut, 1379/1959.

Maqatil ‑ al‑Isfahani, Abu al‑Faraj, Maqatil al‑7alibiyyin, Cairo, 1368/1949, also Najaf, 1965.

Milal ‑ al‑Shahristani, Muhammad b. Abd al‑Karim, Kitab al‑Milal wal‑Nihal, London 1263/1846.

Mizan ‑ al‑Dhahabi, Mizan al‑Itidal fi Naqd al‑Rijal, 4 vols., Cairo, 1963.

al‑Muntazam ‑ Ibn al‑Jawzi, Abd al‑Rahman, al‑Muntazam fi Tarikh al‑Muluk wal ­Umam, Haydar Abad, 1357/1939, and Beirut, 1974.

Muruj ‑ al‑Masudi, Ail b. al‑Hasan, Muruj al‑Dhahab wa Ma'adin al‑Jawhar, 9 vols., Paris, 1861‑76.

M. Sahih ‑ Muslim b. al‑Hajjaj al‑Nisaburi, Sahih Muslim, Cairo, 1377/1956.

Al-Najashi ‑ al‑Najashi, Ahmad b. al‑‘Abbas, Kitab al‑Rijal, Tehran, n.d.

N. Firaq ‑ al‑Nawbakhti, al‑Hasan b. Musa, Firaq al‑Shia, Leipzig, 1931, also Najaf 1963.

Nujum ‑ Ibn Taghri Bardi, Abu al‑Mahasin, al‑Nujum al‑Zahira fi Muluk Misr wal­Qahira, 12 vols., Cairo, n.d.

Q. Maqalat ‑ Sad al‑Ashari al‑Qummi, Kitab al‑Maqalat wal‑Firaq, Tehran, 1963.

Tabari ‑ al‑Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir, Tarikh al‑Rusul wal‑Muluk, Leyden, 1879­1901.

T. al‑Fihrist ‑ al‑Tusi, Muhammad b. al‑Hasan, al‑Fihrist, Mashhad, 1972.

T. al‑Ghayba ‑ idem, Kitab al‑Ghayba, Tabriz, 1322/1904.

al‑Tirmidhi ‑ al‑Tirmidhy, Muhammad b. Isa, Sunan al‑Tirmidhi Cairo, 1356/1937.

Uyun ‑ al‑Saduq, Uyun Akhbar al‑Riďa, Najaf, 19(70.

Wafayat ‑ Ibn Khallikan, Ahmad b. Muhammad, Wafayat al‑Ayan, 2 vols., Cairo, 1299/1882.

al‑Yaqubi ‑ al‑Yaqubi, Ahmad b. Abi Yaqub, al‑Tasrikh, 3 vols., Beirut, 1375/1955.

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