Third, there are many suras of the Qur'an and hadith proving that
he was an infidel and worthy of curses.
Sheikh: I would like very much
to hear these suras and hadith.
Well-Wisher: Only a few will
be pointed out. If I narrate them all, it would form a complete
book. Muslim, in his Sahih, reports Mu'awiya was a scribe of the
Holy Prophet. Mada'ini says: "Sa'id Bin Thabit was the Wahi
(revelation) and Mu'awiya used to write the letters of the Holy
Prophet to other Arabs."
(1) Please refer to ayat 60 of Sura 17 (Bani Israel). Commentators
from your own ulema, like Tha'labi, Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi, and
others say that the Holy Prophet saw in a dream that the Bani
Umayya, like monkeys, ascended and descended his pulpit. Thereafter
Gabriel brought this holy ayat: "And when We said to you:
Surely your Lord encompasses men. And we did not create the vision
which We showed you except as a trial for men and the cursed tree
in the Qur'an as well. And we cause them to fear, but it only
adds to their grievous transgression." (17:60)
Allah Almighty has called the Bani Umayya, whose leaders were
Abu Sufyan and Mu'awiya, the "cursed tree" in the Holy
Qur'an. Mu'awiya, who was a strong limb of this tree, was definitely
(2) Again Allah Almighty says, "But if you held command,
you would surely make mischief in the land and cut off the ties
of kinship. Those it is whom Allah has cursed so He has made them
deaf and blinded their eyes." (47:22-23)
In this verse those who make mischief in the earth and sever the
ties of kinship are cursed by Allah. Who was a greater mischief
monger than Mu'awiya, whose caliphate was notorious for its evil
practices. Besides this, he severed the ties of kinship.
(3) Also Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: "Surely as for those
who speak evil things of Allah and His Apostle, Allah has cursed
them in this world and in the hereafter, and He has prepared them
for a chastisement bringing disgrace." (33:57)
Certainly tormenting the Commander of the Faithful and the two
grandsons of the Holy Prophet Hasan and Husain as well as Ammar-e-Yasir
and other distinguished companions of the Holy Prophet was the
equivalent of tormenting the Holy Prophet himself. Since Mu'awiya
did torment these pious people, he was, according to the explicit
wordings of the verse, definitely accursed in this world and in
(4) In sura Mu'min (The Believer), Allah says: "The day on
which their excuse shall not benefit the unjust, and for them
is a curse and for them is an evil abode." (40:52)
(5) In the sura Hud, He says: "Now surely the curse of Allah
is on the unjust." (11:18)
(6) In the sura Al-A'raf (The Elevated Places) Allah says: "Then
a crier will cry out among them that the curse of Allah is on
the unjust." (7:44)
Similarly, in many other verses revealed about the unjust ones,
it is clear that every unjust one is accursed. I do not think
any of you would deny the open injustices perpetrated by Mu'awiya.
So the very fact that he was unjust, proves that he deserved Allah's
curse in the light of these clear indications we too can curse
the one who deserves Allah's curse.
(7) In the sura Nisa (The Women) Allah says: "And whoever
kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is Hell; he shall
abide in it, and Allah will send His wrath on him and curse him
and prepare for him a painful chastisement." (4:93)
This holy verse explicitly says that if a man kills a single believer
intentionally, he deserves Allah's curse and his abode is in Hell.
Wasn't Mu'awiya associated with the murder of believers? Did he
not order the killing of Hajar Ibn Adi and his seven companions?
Did he not order that Abdu'r-Rahman Bin Hasan Al-Ghanzi be buried
Ibn Asakir and Yaqub Bin Sufyan in their Histories; Baihaqi in
his Dala'il; Ibn Abdu'l-Bar in Isti'ab; and Ibn Athir in Kamil
have reported that Hajar Bin Adi was one of the eminent companions
who, along with seven companions was brutally murdered by Mu'awiya.
Their crime was refusing to curse Ali.
Imam Hasan was the elder grandson of the Holy Prophet. Was he
not included in Ashab-e-Kisa (people of the mantle)? Was he not
one of the two leaders of the youths of Paradise and a believer
of exalted rank? According to the reports of Mas'udi, Ibn Abdu'l-Bar,
Abu'l-Faraj Ispahani, Tabaqa of Muhammad Bin Sa'd, Tadhkira of
Sibt Ibn Jauzi, and other accredited ulema of the Sunnis, Mu'awiya
sent poison to Asma' Ju'da and promised her that if she killed
Hasan Ibn Ali, he would give her 100,000 dirhams and would marry
her to his son Yazid. After the martyrdom of Imam Hasan, he gave
her 100,000 dirhams but refused to marry her to Yazid. Would you
hesitate to call Mu'awiya accursed? Is it not a fact that in the
Battle of Siffin the great companion of the Holy Prophet, Ammar
Yasir, was martyred by Mu'awiya's order? All your prominent ulema
say with one accord that the Holy Prophet said to Ammar Yasir:
"It will not be long before you will be killed by a rebellious
and misguided group."
Have you any doubt that thousands of devout believers were killed
by Mu'awiya's subordinates? Wasn't the pure and valiant warrior,
Malik Ashtar, poisoned by Mu'awiya's order? Can you deny that
Mu'awiya's chief officials, Amr Bin As and Mu'awiya Bin Khadij,
brutally martyred the Commander of the Faithful's governor, the
pious Muhammad Bin Abi Bakr? Not content with that, they put his
body into the carcass of a donkey and set it on fire. If I were
to give you the details about the believers killed by Mu'awiya
and his officials, it would require not one night, but several.
The greatest atrocity was that of Busr Bin Artat who killed thousands
of believers on Mu'awiya's orders.
Abu'l-Faraj Ispahani and Allama Samhudi in Ta'rikhu'l-Medina,
Ibn Khallikan, Ibn Asakir and Tabari in their histories; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid
in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol.I, and many others of your notable
ulema have written that Mu'awiya ordered Busr to attack San'a
and Yemen from Medina and Mecca. He gave a similar order to Zuhak
Bin Qais Al-Fahri and others. Abu'l-Faraj reports it in these
words: "Whoever from the companions and Shia of Ali is found
should be killed; even women and children should not be spared."
With these strict orders, they set out with a force of 3000 and
attacked Medina, San'a', Yemen, Ta'if, and Najran. When they reached
Yemen, the governor, Ubaidullah Ibn Abbas, was out of the city.
They entered his house and slaughtered his two sons Sulayman and
Dawud in the lap of their mother.
Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol.I,
p.121, that in this raid 30,000 people were killed, excluding
those who were burnt alive.
Do you gentlemen still doubt that Mu'awiya deserves to be cursed?
Among the many clear proofs that Mu'awiya was an infidel and deserved
damnation was his public rejection of the Commander of the Faithful
and his ordering the people to recite imprecations against the
holy Imam in their qunuts (supplication in daily prayers). This
fact is acknowledged by both you and us. Even the historians of
other nations have recorded that this vile practice was openly
pursued and that many people were put to death because they did
not utter the curses. This outrage was discontinued by the Umayya
Caliph, Umar bin Abdu'l-Aziz.
Obviously, one who curses the brother of the Holy Prophet, the
husband of Fatima, the Commander of the Faithful, Ali Bin Abi
Talib, and who orders others to do it is definitely damned. This
fact has been recorded by all your eminent ulema in their authentic
books. For instance, Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal in his Musnad, Imam
Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i in his Khasa'isu'l-Alawi, Imam Tha'labi
and Imam Fakhru'd-in Razi in their Tafsir (commentary), Ibn Abi'l-Hadid
in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i
in his Kifayatu't-Talib, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira, Sulayman
Balkhi Hanafi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in
his Mawaddatu'l-Qurba, Dailami in his Firdaus, Muslim Bin Hajjaj
in his Sahih, Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i in his Matalibu's-Su'ul,
Ibn Sabbagh Maliki in his Fusulu'l-Muhimma, Hakim in his Mustadrak,
Khatib Khawarizmi in his Manaqib, Abraham Hamwaini in his Fara'id,
Ibn Maghazili Shafi'i in his Manaqib, Imamu'l-haram in his Dhakha'iru'l-Uquba,
Ibn Hajar in his Sawa'iq, and your other prominent ulema have,
in slightly different words, reported that the Holy Prophet said:
"One who reviles Ali, really reviles me; who reviles me,
really reviles Allah."
Dailami in his Firdaus, Sulayman Hanafi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda have
reported that the Holy Prophet said: " One who gives pain
to Ali, really gives pain to me, and the curse of Allah is upon
him who causes pain to me." Ibn Hajar Makki in his Sawa'iq
narrates a hadith concerning the consequence to one who curses
against any of the progeny of the Holy Prophet. He reports that
the Holy Prophet said: "If anyone curses my Ahle Bait, there
is nothing for him but exclusion from Islam. If anyone injures
me concerning my Ahle Bait, may Allah's curse be upon him."
Therefore Mu'awiya was certainly cursed. As reported by Ibn Athir
in his Kamil, Mu'awiya used to curse Ali, the grandsons of the
Holy Prophet, Hasan and Husain and also Abbas and Malik Ashtar
in the qunut of his daily prayers.
Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal reports in his Musnad from a number of sources
that the Holy Prophet of Allah said: "If any one injures
Ali he shall be treated as a Jew or Christian on the Day of Judgement."
Certainly you must know that it is one of the tenets of Islam
that to call Allah and the Holy Prophet by ill names leads to
Muhammad Bin Ganji Shafi'i in his Kifayatu't-Talib, part X, reports
that once Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Sa'id Ibn Jabir saw on the brink
of Zamzam a group of Syrians railing at Ali. They went to them
and said: "Who among you was abusing the Holy Prophet of
Allah?" They replied: "None of us was abusing the Holy
Prophet of Allah." Then they said: "Well, who among
you was abusing Ali?" They said: "Yes, we have been
Then Abdullah and Sa'id said: "You should bear witness that
we heard the Holy Prophet saying to Ali, 'One who abuses you really
abuses me; one who abuses me, really abuses Allah. If someone
abuses Allah, He will throw him headlong into the fire of Hell.'"
Sheikh: Is it proper for a man
of your caliber to condemn such an able and dignified companion
of the Holy Prophet? Is it not a fact that Allah Almighty revealed
a number of verses in praise of the companions of the Holy Prophet
and gave them the good tidings of their deliverance. And Khalu'l-Mu'minin
Mu'awiya, who was definitely a distinguished companion, deserved
the praise contained in the holy verse. Doesn't insulting the
companions amount to insulting Allah and the Holy Prophet?
Well-Wisher: Perhaps you have
forgotten what I have already told you on previous nights. No
one denies that verses have been revealed in praise of the companions.
But if you understand the meaning of the sahaba or companions,
you will admit that the verses revealed in praise of the companions
are not generally applicable to all. We cannot regard all of them
as entirely pure.
Respected man! You know full well that "sahaba" literally
means the joining together of persons. So it may mean living together
or, as is commonly understood, helping or giving assistance to
others. According to Arab lexicography, the Qur'an, and the hadith,
a companion of the Holy Prophet refers to one who has spent his
life in the company of the Holy Prophet, whether he was a Muslim
or an infidel. So your interpretation that all the companions
deserve Paradise is not correct. This contradicts common sense
as well as the hadith.
I will submit additional Qur'anic verses and authentic hadith
from Sunni scholars so that you will not be mistaken about the
word "companion." This word was used for all companions,
whether they were Muslims or not.
(1) In the sura Najm (the Star), Allah says to the Polytheists:
"Your companion does not err, nor does he go astray."
(2) In the sura of Saba (Sheba), Allah says: "Say: I exhort
you only to one thing, that you rise up for Allah's sake in pairs
and singly, then ponder: your companion is not possessed."
(3) In the sura of Kahf (The Cave), Allah says: "and said
he to his companion while he disputed with him: I have greater
wealth than you and am mightier in followers." (18:34)
(4) In the same sura, Allah says: "His companion said to
him while disputing with him: Do you disbelieve in Him Who created
you from dust, then from a sperm drop, then He made you a perfect
(5) In the sura of A'raf (The Elevated Places), Allah says: "Do they not
reflect that their companion had not unsoundness in mind? He is
only a plain warner." (7:184)
(6) In the sura of An'am (The Cattle), Allah says: "Say:
Shall we call on that besides Allah, which does not benefit us
nor harm us, and shall we be returned back on our heels after
Allah has guided us, like him whom the devils have made to fall
down perplexed on the earth. He has companions who call him to
the right way, (saying): 'Come to us.' Say: Surely the guidance
of Allah, that is the (true) guidance, and we are commanded that
we should submit to the Lord of the worlds." (6:71)
(7) In the sura of Yusuf (Joseph) He says: (Yusuf addressing his
two fellow prisoners who were polytheists) "O my two Companions
of the prison! Are many lords better or Allah, the One, the Supreme?"
These are a few verses, which I have quoted by way of example.
It is clear that the words "sahaba," "sahib,"
"musahib" and "ashab" have no special relationship
to Muslims. They are used in reference to Muslims and polytheists
alike. As I have said, a man who has a social dealing with another
man is called his musahib or ashab. The companions of the Holy
Prophet refer to those who had social dealings with him.
Certainly among the companions of the Holy Prophet and among those
who sat in his company, were all sorts of people, good and bad,
believers as well as hypocrites. The verses revealed in praise
of the companions cannot be attributed to all of them. They refer
only to the good companions. It is also true that none of these
exalted prophets of the past had companions as distinguished as
those of our Holy Prophet. For instance, the companions of Badr,
Uhud, and Hunain were such as stood the test of time. They helped
the Holy Prophet and were firm in their resolve.
But among his companions were also a number of men of debased
character, enemies of the Holy Prophet and his Ahle Bait, men
like Abdullah Bin Ubayy, Abu Sufyan, Hakam Bin As, Abu Huraira,
Tha'labi, Yazid Bin Sufyan, Walid Bin Aqaba, Habib Bin Musailima,
Samra Bin Jundab, Amr Bin As, Busr Bin Artat (a tyrant and bloodthirsty
man), Mughira Bin Sha'ba, Mu'awiya Bin Abi Sufyan, and Dhu's-Sadiyya.
These men, both during the life time of the Holy Prophet and after
his death, caused great tumult among the people. One such man
was Mu'awiya, whom the Holy Prophet cursed in his own time. After
the death of the Holy Prophet, when Mu'awiya got an opportunity,
he rose in revolt in the name of seeking vengeance for Uthman's
murder and caused the blood shed of many Muslims. In this slaughter,
many respected companions of the Holy Prophet, like Ammar Yasir,
were martyred. The Holy Prophet himself foretold his martyrdom.
I have already mentioned some hadith regarding this event.
There are many verses in the Holy Qur'an and hadith in praise
of distinguished companions and pious believers. And there are
also many verses and hadith condemning those companions who were
Sheikh: How can you claim that
the companions of the Holy Prophet caused social disturbances?
Well-Wisher: This is not merely
my claim. Allah Almighty in the sura of Ahle Imran (the House
of Imran) says: "If then he (Muhammad) dies or is killed,
will you turn back upon your heels?" (3:144)
Apart from this and other verses of the Holy Qur'an, your own
ulema, including Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Asakir, Yaqub Bin Sufyan,
Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Abdu'l-Bar, and others have recorded a number
of reports and hadith concerning the condemnation of some of the
companions. I will refer to only two hadith. Bukhari reports from
Sahl Ibn Sa'd and Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud that the Holy Prophet of
Allah said, "I shall be waiting for you at the fountain of
Kauthar. When a group of you goes astray from my way, I will say,
'O Allah! These were my companions!' Then a reply from Him will
come to me: 'You do not know what innovations they introduced
Again Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal in his Musnad, Tabrani in his Kabir,
and Abu Nasr Sakhri in his Ibana narrate from Ibn Abbas that the
Holy Prophet said: "I want to save you from the chastisement
of Hell. I ask you to fear Hell and to make no changes in the
religion of Allah. When I die and am separated from you, I shall
be present at the Fountain of Kauthar. Whoever reaches me there
is saved. At the end of time when I find a large number of people
caught in divine chastisement, I shall say: 'O Allah! These are
the people of my Community.' The reply shall come, 'Verily, these
people returned to their old creed after you.'" According
to Tabrani's report in Kabir, the reply shall be: "You do
not know what innovations they introduced after you. They adopted
their former religion of ignorance."
You insist that Mu'awiya and Yazid are Muslims even though their
many atrocities are recorded in your own books. Some of the Sunni
ulema have written complete books in their condemnation, but you
stubbornly insist that they were praiseworthy and that Abu Talib
a sincere believer was an infidel!
It is quite evident that this foolish talk is the product of enmity
against the Commander of the Faithful, Ali. You try to refute
the arguments which prove the infidelity and hypocrisy of Mu'awiya
and Yazid. And yet you reject Abu Talib's open pronouncements
regarding his belief in Allah and the Holy Prophet.
Is it not a fact that the Holy Prophet's Ahle Bait have said that
Abu Talib was a believer and that he died a believer? Has not
Asbagh Bin Nabuta, a highly trusted man, narrated from the Commander
of the Faithful that he said, "I swear by Allah that my father,
Abu Talib, my grandfather, Abdu'l-Muttalib Hashim, and Abdu'l-Manaf
never worshipped idols."
Is it proper that you should reject the statements of Ali and
the holy Ahle Bait and give credence to the statements of the
cursed Mughira, Amawis, Kharijis, Nasibis, and other enemies of
the Commander of the Faithful?
Moreover, many of your ulema, including Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his
Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, have written that one day Abu Talib came
to the mosque and saw that the Holy Prophet was offering prayers.
Ali was offering prayers on the right side of the Holy Prophet.
Abu Talib ordered his son Ja'far (Tayyar) who was with him and
had not yet embraced Islam, "Stand on the side of your cousin
and perform the prayers with him." Ja'far moved forward and,
standing on the left side of the Holy Prophet, began to say his
prayers. At that time Abu Talib composed these lines of poetry:
"Verily Ali and Ja'far are my strength and solace in my distress
and disappointment. O Ali and Ja'far! Never leave the company
of your cousin and my nephew, but help him. I swear that I will
never leave the Holy Prophet. Can anyone leave the company of
a Prophet of such noble family?"
So it is the unanimous view of your own ulema that Ja'far's embracing
Islam and his performing the prayers with the Holy Prophet were
at the order of Abu Talib.
Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha and Ibn Jauzi in Tadhkirat-e-Khawasu'l-Umma
report from Tabaqat-e-Muhammad Ibn Sa'd, who reports from Waqidi
and Allama Seyyed Muhammad Bin Seyyed Rasul Barzanji in his Kitabu'l-Islam
Fi'l-'am-o-Aba'-e-Seyyedu'l-An'am, a report from Ibn Sa'd and
Ibn Asakir, who report on authentic sources from Muhammad Bin
Ishaq that Ali said: "When Abu Talib died, and I informed
the Holy Prophet of Allah about it, he wept bitterly. Then he
said to me, 'Go and wash his body in preparation for burial, wrap
his body in a shroud, and bury him. May Allah bless him and have
mercy upon him!"
Is it permitted by Islam to perform the burial rituals for a polytheist?
Is it right for us to say that the Holy Prophet invoked the blessings
of Allah upon an infidel and a polytheist? The Holy Prophet did
not leave his house for several days and continued praying to
Allah for Abu Talib's eternal peace.
If you consult the Tadhkira of Sibt Ibn Jauzi, p.6 you will see
what the Commander of the Faithful said in his eulogy for his
father. "O Abu Talib! You were a haven for the seeker of
refuge, a rain of mercy for dry lands, and a light which penetrated
the darkness. Your death has toppled the pillars of safety. Now
the real Benefactor has bestowed mercy upon you. Allah Almighty
has attached you to His Court. Verily, you were the best uncle
of the Holy Prophet."
Can it be believed that a man who was the embodiment of monotheism
would write such a eulogy for a person who died an infidel?
Sheikh: If Abu Talib was a believer,
why did he not reveal his faith as his brothers, Hamza and Abbas
Well-Wisher: There was a great
difference between Abbas, Hamza, and Abu Talib. Hamza was so fearless
and formidable that all Meccans dreaded him. His embracing Islam
proved a great help to the Holy Prophet.
Abbas, however, did not announce his Islam immediately. Ibn Abdu'l-Bar
writes in his Isti'ab that Abbas embraced Islam while he was in
Mecca, but he concealed his faith from the people. When the Holy
Prophet migrated from Mecca, Abbas also intended to be with him.
But the Holy Prophet wrote to him that his stay in Mecca would
be useful to him (the Holy Prophet). Accordingly, he remained
in Mecca and used to send the Holy Prophet news from there. The
idolaters brought him with them to the Battle of Badr. When the
infidels were defeated, he was taken prisoner. On the day of the
conquest of Khaibar he was finally allowed to reveal his faith.
Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch.56,
p.226 reports from the Dhakha'iru'l-Uquba of Imamu'l-Haram Abu
Ja'far Ahmad Bin Abdullah Tabari Shafi'i, who reports from Faza'il
of Abu'l-Qasim Ilahi that scholars know that Abbas had embraced
Islam in the beginning but that he kept it secret. In the Battle
of Badr, when he came along with the infidels, the Holy Prophet
told his men, "Whoever sees Abbas should not kill him because
he unwillingly accompanied the infidels. He was ready to migrate,
but I wrote to him that he should remain there and give me information
about the idolaters." On the day Abu Rafi'i informed the
Holy Prophet that Abbas proclaimed his acceptance of Islam, the
Holy Prophet set Abu Rafi'i free.
If Abu Talib had revealed his faith, all of the Quraish and the
entire Arab nation would have united against the Bani Hashim.
Abu Talib understood the expedience of concealing his Islam. He
pretended to be loyal to the Quraish in order to thwart the activities
of the enemy.
So long as Abu Talib remained alive the same condition continued,
and the Holy Prophet was protected. But at the death of Abu Talib,
the Angel Gabriel appeared before the Holy Prophet and said: "Now
you should leave Mecca. After Abu Talib, you have no helper here."
Sheikh: Was the Islam of Abu
Talib known during the time of the Holy Prophet of Allah, and
did the community believe in it?
Well-Wisher: Yes, it was commonly
known to the people and they pronounced his name with full reverence.
Sheikh: How is it possible that
during the time of the Holy Prophet a thing was so much spoken
of and commonly known to all, but after a period of thirty years,
a contrary view gained credence because of a false hadith?
Well-Wisher: This was not a
unique instance. Often what was accepted during the time of the
Holy Prophet completely changed its form after a few years because
of a forged hadith. Other religious orders and practices in force
during the life of the Prophet were abandoned after some years
due to the influence of the people.