Adhan: Call to prayer.
Ahlul Bayt: Designated family members of the Prophet Muhammad.
Ahl al-sunnah wal-jama΄ah: Sunni tradition.
al-Kaba΄ir: Cardinal sin.
Alawiyiin: The descendants of Imam Ali.
'Asr: Muslim afternoon prayer.
Awliya': (Plural of wali): leader, guardian, friend, master, slave, etc.
Azl: Outside ejaculation.
Bay'ah: Paying allegiance.
Dhalimeen (also spelled: dhalimun and dhalamu): Cruel, violent, proud, hypocrites, or wrongdoers.
Dhuhr: Muslim Noon Prayer.
Dhul Hijjah: The twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
Eid: Muslim holiday.
Fajr: Muslim Dawn prayer.
Fatawa: A religious decision.
Fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence.
Fitna: Dispute, also trial or test.
Ghusl: Ritual bathing.
Hadith: Actions, words, and consents of the Prophet in matters pertaining to the meaning and practices of Islam which have been transmitted through a line of narrators.
Hijaz: Arabian Peninsula.
Hijrah: Immigration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Madina.
Ibn (ibn): Son of…
Ihram: Ritual consecration.
Imamiyyah (Imami or Imamah): Succession to the Prophet.
Imams: Leaders after the Prophet (i.e. the 12 Imams).
Iqaama: The call that signals the beginning of the prayer.
Isha: Muslim Night prayer.
Jama'ah: A group.
Jihad: Struggle. There are two types of struggles in Islam - the Greater Struggle (jihad al-akbar) which is the fighting against ill-desires of the self and the Lesser Struggle (jihad al-asghar) defending Islam in the warfront.
Junub: Being in a state of ritually impurity.
Kaffarah: Penalty money.
Khilafa: Successorship or leadership.
Khumra: A solid piece of dirt or a piece of straw.
Khums: A form of charity described as: one-fifth of the surplus of one's income after taking away all legitimate expenses for a the person and his dependants.
Madhahib (madhhab): Schools of Islamic thought.
Maghafir: The gum of mimosa.
Mu'adhdhin: A person who makes the call to prayer.
Muhkam: Fundamental or basic.
Mujtahid: A juristic scholar.
Mushaf: A book or volume.
Mushrik: One who associates something or someone with Allah.
Mut'ah: Temporary marriage.
Mut'ah al-Hajj: Means that Muslims are free from the restrictions of ihram during the time between 'umrah and the hajj.
Nawafil: Recommended Muslim prayers.
Qa΄im: Firmly established.
Ruku: Bowing down.
Sadaqa: General charity.
Sahaba: Companions of the Prophet.
Sha'ban: The 8th month of the Muslim calendar.
Salat al-Layl: The recommended, night Muslim prayer.
Sayyid: Master. Also means and elder or a descendent of the Prophet Muhammad.
Tabi΄in: The following generation after the Prophet.
Takbir (takbirs or takbirats): Saying “Allah Akbar” which means 'Allah is Greater than everything else'.
Tarawih Prayer: Special prayers offered during the nights of Ramadan.
Thaqalayn: A hadith of the Two Weighty Things [the Noble Quran and the Ahlul Bayt].
Ummah: Muslim nation.