The things or actions which make a fast void (batil) are 10 in number:-
1. and 2. Eating or drinking anything. 3. Sexual relation; 4 Speaking, writing or conveying by sign any lie about Allah, the Prophets, the Imams, or Bibi Fatima (S.A.); 5. Submerging the head in water; 6. Conveying thick dust, smoke or steam up to throat; 7. Vomiting; 8. Doing any such thing by which semen comes out; 9. Enema with liquid; 10. Remaining in the condition of janabat, haiz or nifas up to subh al-sadiq (true dawn).
Note 1. All these things break the fast if they are committed intentionally. If a person forgets that he is fasting, and eats or drinks, his fast is correct. Likewise, if he vomits involuntarily; or speaks something about God or Imams which he thinks is correct (though in fact it is wrong). or somebody else pushes him into water and his head goes into water; or he sees a dust coming towards him and tries his best to protect himself from it, but still inhales some of it involuntarily, his fast is correct.
Note 2. Remaining in the condition of janabat makes a fast void in the month of Ramadan and in its qadha only. Other fasts are not affected by it.
Note 3. Not doing ghusl (or tayammum. if allowed) of haiz, or nifas before subh al-sadiq (true dawn) makes the fast void in the month of Ramadan only. Other fasts (including the qadha of Ramadan) are not affected by it.
Note 4. When a fast is broken by any of the above-mentioned muftirat, or when a person does not keep fast (without any excuse. i.e. illness or travel), he has to pay kaffarah. in addition to its qadha.
The kaffarah of breaking the fast of one day of Ramadan is :
1. Emancipating a slave; 2.If that is not possible, then two-months-fast consecutively; 3.And if that is also not possible, then feeding 60 poor Mu’mins.
Kaffarah of breaking the qadha of one day of Ramadan, if broken after zawal, is: 1. Feeding 10 poor Mu’mins: 2. and if that is - not possible, then fasting three days.
Kaffarah of breaking the fast of specified nadhr is:
1. Emancipating a slave; 2. If that is not possible, then feeding 10 poor Mu’min; 3. Or clothing 10 poor Mu’min; 4. And if he cannot do any of these then, fasting for three days.
Note 1. In feeding, it is enough to give each man 1 ½ pound of wheat or rice.
Note 2. Whenever in a kaffarah a certain thing is prescribed, its price is not acceptable. For instance, it is not allowed to give money of 1 ½ pound of wheat, or the price of a shirt and trousers to a poor man. It is obligatory to give him the grain or clothes.
Note 3. When a fast is broken by any haram thing, like wine etc. all 3 kaffarahs are to be paid (emancipation of slave, 60 days fast, feeding 60 poor Mu’mins), as a punishment.
Note 4. In two-months-fast, at least 31 days should be fasted consecutively. The remaining 29 days may be fasted with gaps.