Allah is One in the sense that He has no partner in His Divinity. He has said:
Say: He is Allah, the One.1
If He had a partner, there would have been conflict between the two and that would have caused disorder, as Allah has said: Had there been several gods in the heavens and the earth, they would have been disordered.2
Allah is not composed of anything. If He had been made up of several parts, He would have depended on them, and a dependent cannot be self-existing.
Allah is not a body, nor a quality nor an essence, for if He had been any such thing, He would not have been self-existing and would have required a maker. And that is impossible.
Allah cannot be seen by the sense of sight, neither in this world, nor in the next, for He is Abstract. Everything visible must have a body and a direction while Allah is free from them. He has said:
You will never see Me3
He has also said:
“Eyesight does not perceive Him4
Allah is not subject to any eventualities, or else He would have become transient, but His transience is impossible.
Allah can not be described as incarnate, for that would mean the combination of the self-existing with what is not self-existing and that is impossible.
Allah does not combine with anything else, for combination turns two things into one without any addition or subtraction and that is impossible. Nothing that is impossible can be attributed to Allah.
Allah does not have any additional concepts or attributes in the sense that He is not knowing with knowledge and He is not Able with ability, for if He had any additional attributes, He would have been subject to eventualities if these attributes originated in time, and there would have been several eternal and ever-lasting beings if these attributes had no beginning. Both these things are impossible. More-over, in this case the Self-existing Being will be in need of His attributes supposed to be distinct from Him and thus will no longer remain self-existing, which is absurd.
Allah is Independent in the sense that He is not in need of anyone or anything else, for being Self-Existing He cannot be needy. Allah has no direction and no place, for anyone having direction and place is in need of them. Further, it has proved that Allah is not an organism, nor is He an essence nor a quality. Therefore He does not have a place or a direction.
Allah does not have a child or a wife for it has been proved that He is not in need of anyone else. Further all that is besides Him is not Self-Existing. Then how can a non-self-existing being become self-existing? The Holy Qur'an says:
There is not anything like Him.5
Jesus is like Adam. Allah created him from clay.6