Among Sunní authors one who has written
a book on the topic of the chains of transmission (>uruq)
of this tradition is al\áfiz Abú alFa_l
Mu<ammad ibn ^áhir alMaqdisí (448
507/1056 1113), known as Ibn al Qaysarání
as mentioned by the biographers (Ismá`íl Páshá
in Hadiyyatal`árifín (ii, 82), al'Ansáb
almuttafiqáh and alJam` bayn rijál
al@a<í<ayn [Hyderabad]). 
However, the most exhaustive study of the
subject is the one undertaken by al'Imám Sayyid \ámid
\usayn Lakhnowi quddisa sirruh in the twelfth
part of his great work `Abaqát al'anwár
fí imámat al 'A'immat al'a>hár.
Sayyid \ámid \usayn (1246 1306/ 1830 1888)
wrote this work in Persian as a refutation of the seventh chapter
of Tu<fehye ithna `ashariyyah of Sháh `Abd
al`Azíz alDehlawí (1159 1239/1746
1823). In twelve chapters of this work, which is said to
be a plagiary in Persian of al@awá`iq almúbiqah
by an obscure writer Na#r Alláh alKábulí,
Sháh `Abd al`Azíz severely attacked Shí`í
doctrines, beliefs and practices. Sháh `Abd al`Azíz's
book was an effort to check the expanding influence of Shi'ism,
which had begun to flourish under the patronage of the Shí`í
kingdom of Awadh and under the religious leadeship of the great
Shí`í scholar and mujtahid Sayyid Dildár
`Alí ibn Mu<ammad Mu`ín alNaqawí
alNá#irábádí (116 1235/1752
1819), known as Ghufrán Ma'áb.
Sháh `Abd al`Azíz's
attack and accusations drew a massive response from Shí`í
scholars. `Allámah `Abd al`Azíz ^abá>abá'í
mentions the following authors who wrote refutations of Tu<fehye
ithná `ashariyyah: 
1. Sayyid Dildár `Alí alNaqawí alNá#irábádí,
who wrote five books refuting various chapters
of the Tu<fah: al@awárim al'iláhiyyát
fí qa>` shubuhát `abíd al'Uzzá
wa alLát (1215/1800), a refutation of the fifth
chapter of the Tu<fah regarding theological issues;
Khátimat al@awárim, a refutation of
the seventh chapter concerning the Shí`í doctrine
of Imamate; \usám al'Islám wa sihám
almalám (Calcutta, 1215/1800), a refutation of
the sixth chapter of the Tu<fah concerning prophethood;
I<yá' alSunnah wa imátat albid`ah
bi >a`n al'asinnah (1281/1864), a refutation of the
eighth chapter of the Tu<fah; alZulfiqár, a
refutation of the twelfth chapter.
2. Shaykh Jamál alDín Abú A<mad Mirzá Mu<ammad ibn `Abd alNabí Akbarábádí (d. 1232/1816),
who wrote Sayf Alláh almaslúl
`alá mukharribí Dín alRasúl,
in six big volumes, as refutation of all the chapters of the
3. `Allámah Mirzá Mu<ammad ibn 'Ináyat A<mad Khán Kashmírí Dehlawí (d. 1235/1820),
who wrote Nuzhat al'Ithná
`Ashariyyah fí alradd `alá alTu<fat
al'ithná `ashariyyah in twelve volumes, of which
the first, third, fourth, fifth and seventh volumes were published
(1255/ 1839) and others remained incomplete.
4. Mawlawí \asan ibn Amán Alláh Dehlawí `A~ímábádí (d. c. 1260/ 1844),
who wrote Tajhíz aljaysh
li kasr #anamay Quraysh, as a refutation of all the chapters
of the Tu<fah.
5. `Allámah Sayyid Mu<ammad Qulí ibn Sayyid Mu<ammad \usayn Lackhnowí Kantúrí (d. 1260/1844),
father of Sayyid \ámid \usayn, who
wrote five books in refutation of different chapters of the Tu<fah:
alSayf alná#irí on the first chapter,
Taqlíd almaká'id (Calcutta, 1262/1846)
on the second chapter, Burhán alsa`ádah
on the seventh chapter, Tashyíd alma>á'in
li kashf al_aghá'in in two volumes (1283/1866)
on the tenth chapter, and Masari` alafhám li qal`
6. Mawlawí Khayr alDín Mu<ammad Alláhábádí,
who wrote Hidáyat al`Azíz
(or Hadiyyat al`Azíz) as a refutation of the
fourth chapter of the Tu<fah about u#úl al<adíth
7. `Allámah Sayyid Mu<ammad ibn Sayyid Dildár `Alí (d. 1284/ 1867) known as Sul>án al`Ulamá',
who wrote two books, one in Persian and
the other in Arabic, in refutation of the seventh chapter of the
Tu<fah concerning Imamate, of which the former was entitled
alBawáriq almubíqah. He also
wrote ^a`n alrimá< in refutation of the
8. Sayyid Ja`far Abú `Alí Khan ibn Ghulám `Alí Músawí Banárasí,
who wrote Burhán al#ádiqín
and Ma<ajjat alBurhán (a condensation
of the former) in refutation of the seventh chapter and Taksír
al#anamayn in refutation of the tenth chapter.
9. `Allámah Sayyid Muftí Mu<ammad `Abbás Músawí Tustarí Jazá'irí (d. 1306/1888),
who wrote alJawáhir al`abqariyyah
in refutation of the Tu<fah's seventh chapter.
10. AlShaykh A<mad ibn `Alí Kirmánsháhí (d. 1235/1819),
who wrote Kashf alshubhah `an <ilyat
almut`ah (MS dated 1227 H. in the National Museum, Karachi),
in refutation of the ninth chapter.
However, the most important work that was
written as a refutation of the seventh chapter of the Tu<fah
conceming the Shí`í doctrine of Imamate was
`Abaqát al'anwár, which was destined
to take its place not only as the greatest work on Imamate ever
written but also perhaps as one of the greatest masterpieces of
scholarship ever compiled on a doctrinal issue anywhere in the
history of religion.
In the seventh chapter of the Tu<fah,
where Sháh `Abd al`Azíz attacks the Shí`í
doctrine of Imamate, he claims that the Shí`í claim
is based on only six verses of the Qur'án and twelve traditions
of the Prophet (S). Accordingly, Sayyid \ámid \usayn wrote
his book in two sections, the first concerning the Qur'ánic
basis of Imamate and the second concerning its basis in the Prophet's
<adíth. The first section has not been published. The
second section consists of 12 parts, each of which deals with
the sanad (chains of transmission) and the meaning (dalálah)
of one of the twelve traditions of the Prophet (S) concerning
`Alí ibn Abí ^álib (A) or the Ahl alBayt
(A) rejected by Sháh `Abd al`Azíz as supporting
the doctrine of Imamate.
The first part studies the isnád
and dalálah of what is called \adíth
It is contained in three volumes, of which the first was published
in 1293/1876, in 1251 pages and the remaining two, of 609 and
399 pages, in 1294/1877.
The second part deals with \adíth
alManzilah.  It appeared
in 1295/1878 in 977 pages.
The third part deals with \adíth
It was published in 1303/1885 in 585 pages.
The fourth part deals with \adíth
al^ayr.  It was published
in 1306/1888 in two volumes of 512 and 224 pages from Ma>ba`ahye
The fifth part deals with \adíth
Madínat al`ilm. 
It consists of two volumes, of which the first, in 745 pages,
appeared in 1317/1899 and the second, in 600 pages, in 1327/1909.
The sixth part deals with \adíth
It was published in 1301/1883 in two volumes of 456 and 248 pages.
The seventh part, which deals with \adíth
and was completed by Sayyid Mu<ammad Sa`íd ibn Sayyid
Ná#ir \usayn ibn Sayyid \ámid \usayn, has not been
The eighth part, dealing with \adíth
alNúr,  was
published in 1303/1885 in 786 pages by Ma>ba`ahye Mashriq
The ninth part, dealing with \adíth
has also remained unpublished.
The tenth part dealing with the <adíth...
(al-<aqqu ma`a `Aliyyin wa `Aliyyun ma`al <aqq) 
also remains unpublished.
The eleventh part dealing with \adíth
also remains unpublished.
The twelfth part deals with \adíth
alThaqalayn and \adíth alSafínah.
 It was published in two big
volumes, the first of which in 664 pages appeared in 1314/1896
and the second in 891 pages in 1351/ 1932.
Sayyid \ámid \usayn and his work
`Abaqát have been held in great esteem amongst leading
Shí`í scholars and many of them, from Mirza Sayyid
\asan Shirází, the great marji` and juristic
authority of his days, to contemporary scholars, have extolled
the author and his great work. Sayyid `Alí Mílání,
in the first volume of his condensed translation of `Abaqát
into Arabic, quotes the statements of various scholars. Here
we will confine ourselves to the opinion expressed by the great
scholar `Allámah Áqá Buzurg ^ehrání,
the author of alDharí`ah ilá ta#áníf
alShí`ah, about Sayyid \ámid \usayn and
his work. He says about the author:
(He is) one of the greatest of Imámí theologians (mutakallimún) and one of the greatest and deeply learned of Shí`í scholars who lived in the early part of this century. He was profoundly learned, and had extensive knowledge and mastery over the Islamic traditions and heritage and attained such a station in it that none of his contemporaries or anyone of those who came after him, or even most of the celebrities of the preceding centuries, have been able to attain. He spent his entire noble life in fathoming the mysteries of religiosity and in the defence of Islam and the realm of sincere religion. I don't know of anyone in the latter centuries who waged a jihád like him and sacrificed everything in his possession in the way of everlasting truths. The times, in all ages and periods, will never see a compeer of him in his research, his extensive knowledge, his precision, intelligence, and the immensity of his memory and retention.
Áqá Buzurg ^ehrání
says about the `Abaqát: "It is the greatest
of books compiled on the subject (ie. Imamate) from the outset
of the Islamic era to the present." And what he says about
the author and his book is perfectly representative of the opinion
of leading Shí`í scholars on this matter. 
Author's Approach in `Abaqát:
was written in Persian because
Sháh `Abd al`Azíz's Tu<fah, which it refuted,
was also in Persian. As mentioned above, Sháh `Abd al`Azíz
had cited five verses of the Qur'án and twelve traditions
of the Prophet (S) as constituting the basis of Shí`í
argument conceming the Imamate of the Imams of the Ahl alBayt
(A). This was itself a misrepresentation of the Shí`í
case, for there are hundreds of verses and traditions, many of
which are scattered throughout the Sunní <adíth
corpus as well as works in tafsír. Even the verses and
traditions that he cites are dismissed summarily by him on, as
Sayyid \ámid \usayn shows, flimsy and untenable pretexts.
The published parts of `Abaqát
deal with eight of these traditions, each part dealing with the
sanad and doctrinal import of one of them. Sayyid \ámid
\usayn's approach in each of these parts is to show that the <adíth
is a mutawátir one, having been narrated by Sunní
traditionists of every generation from the time of the Companions
to the scholars of his own era. He devotes a section to each of
the narrators, quotes the tradition as narrated by him, and cites
the opinions of biographers and Sunní authorities of `ilm
alrijál regarding his reliability, trustworthiness
and his scholarly station.
After discussing the sanad aspect
of the tradition, he goes on to deal with its meaning, dealing
one by one with all the various arguments that have been advanced
by Sunní scholars to refute what the Shí`ah assert
to be its doctrinal implications. His treatment is so logical,
meticulous, precise, thorough and exhaustive that one cannot but
be struck with wonder at his prodigious, or rather miraculous,
learning and his encompassing mastery over the entire Islamic
heritage of thirteen centuries before him which lies in front
of him like an open book.
This sketchy study of `Abaqát
relates to its part concerning the \adíth alThaqalayn.
At first we will give a list of its narrators belonging to every
century of the \ijrah calendar. A brief reference is given under
the name of each narrator concerning his standing with Sunní
authorities on rijál. We have included the names of other
narrators from the appendix (mul<aqát) to `Abaqát
by Sayyid `Abd al`Azíz ^abá>abá'í,
which has been included in the condensed Arabic translation by
Sayyid `Alí Mílání.
Reprints of most parts of `Abaqát
al'anwár have appeared in Iran. The first section
of the first part, dealing with the sanad aspect of \adíth
alGhadír was published in 1369/1949 in 600 pages
from Tehran. The twelfth part, dealing with \adíth alThaqalayn
and Hadíth alSafínah, was published
in six parts and three volumes (vol. 1 in 1379, vol. 2 in 137879,
and vol. 3 in 1381 and 1382) by Mu'assasehye Nashre
Nafá'ise Makh>ú>át, I#fahán.
Madrasat al'Imám alMahdí, Qumm, has
published offset reprints of the first Indian lithographed print
on the occasion of the author's first death centenary (vol. 3
on \adíth alWiláyah, 1406; vol. 4 on
\adíth al^ayr, 1405; vol. 5 on \adíth
Madínat al`ilm, 1406; vol. 6 on \adíth
alTashbíh, 1406; vol. 8 on \adíth alNúr,
1406). `Allámah Shaykh Ghulám Ri_á Burújerdí
has prepared a new edition of the book giving all the necessary
references. His edition is under print.
Sayyid `Alí Mílání
has published ten volumes of Khulá#at `Abaqát
al'anwár, which is a condensed translation of
the book in Arabic. The first two volumes of his translation,
which begins with \adíth alThaqalayn, were
published in 1398. Bunyáde Bi'that, Tehran, has published
a new edition of the Khulá#ah, of which ten parts,
dealing with \adíth alThaqalayn, \adíth
alSafínah, \adíth alNúr and
\adíth alGhadír, have appeared.