Al-Bukhāri is reported to have said in his Sahih. Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Yusuf, from Sufyān, from Qays ibn Muslim, from Tāriq ibn Shahāb, who said: Some of the Jews said: Had this verse been revealed unto us we would have taken that day as a feast. ‘Umar asked them: Which verse you mean? They replied: “This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you Islam as a religion.”
‘Umar said: I know the place where it was revealed. It was revealed while the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be Allah’s peace and benediction, was halting at ‘Arafāt.
Ibn Jarir reports from ‘Isā ibn Hārithah al-’Ansāri, that he said: We were sitting in the diwān when a Christian man said: O followers of Islam, there is a verse revealed unto you, had it been revealed unto us we would have taken that day and that hour as a feast even only two of us survived, which is: "This day have I perfected your religion for you." There at no one of us replied. Then I met Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qartani, and asked him about that, and he said: Couldn’t you answer him? ‘Umar ibn al- Khattāb then said: It was revealed unto the Prophet when he was halting on the Mount on the Day of ‘Arafāt, and that day is still considered as a feast for Muslims as long as they live.
First: Out of these narrations we observe that Muslims were unaware of the date of that memorable day, never celebrating it, the fact making the Jews once and the Christians another time to say to them: Had this verse been revealed unto us we would have celebrated that day as a feast. This prompted ‘Umar to question: Which verse? When they said: “This day have I perfected your religion for you”, he said: I know where it was revealed, that was when the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be Allah’s peace and benediction, was making a halt on (the Mount of) ‘Arafāt.
From this episode we can sense the smell of intrigue and opaqueness, realizing that those who forged this hadith and ascribed it to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb during al-Bukhāri’s lifetime, intended in fact to compromise between the belief of the Jews and Christians in the greatness of the day and necessity of regarding it as a feast, and their status quo of not celebrating that day and never remembering it at all till forgetting it. Whereas it is supposed to be held as the greatest of Muslims’ feasts, as in it Allah, the Glorified, has perfected for them their religion, and completed His favour unto them and have chosen for them Islam as a religion.
Therefore, in the second narration, you find the narrator’s saying when hearing the Christian’s exclamation: O followers of Islam, there is a verse revealed unto you, had it been revealed unto us we would have taken that day as a feast, even only two of us survived. The narrator said that no one of them responded to him, due to their unawareness of the date, position and greatness of that day. The narrator, seemingly, is amazed as to how could the Muslims ignore celebrating such a day. So we observed that when he met Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qartani,, he would question him about that matter, whereat the latter would reply that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb reported its being revealed unto the Prophet (S) while he was making a halt on the Mount on the day of Arafāt.
Had that day been known among all Muslims to be a feast (‘Id), it would have never been ignored by those narrators, whether being of the Sahābah or Tābi‘un, as it is known and established amongst them that the Muslims have two feasts (‘idayn), which are: ‘Id al-Fitr (lesser Bairam) and ‘Id al-’Adhā (greater Bairam). This fact was so common that even the ‘ulamā’ and traditionists, like al-Bukhāri and Muslim and others, mention in their books Kitāb al-‘idayn", Salāt al-‘idayn and Khutbat al-‘idayn, with other similar idioms that are unanimously accepted among all people — far and near — with no existence for a third ‘Id.
It is widely thought that those believing in the principle of shurā in determining the caliphate, and the founders of this theory, being the same ones who diverted the revelation of the verse from its reality on the day of Ghadir Khumm, after designating al-’Imām Ali as a master. Because diverting its revelation to the Day of ‘Arafāt was much easier for those believing in it, since the Day of Ghadir could gather a hundred thousand pilgrims or more, and no occasion was there during Hajjat al-Wadā‘ nearer to Ghadir than the Day of ‘Arafāt in comparison, as only during them the pilgrims would gather in that huge multitude. It is widely known that people be scattered in groups here and there during all hajj days, never meeting together in one halt but at (mount of) ‘Arafāt. That is why we notice those believing in the revelation of the verse on the day of Arafāt, hold that it was revelation directly after the well-known Prophet’s sermon, which was reported by many traditionists.
And when witnessing how they have diverted the text of designating ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib to caliphate, far from its true sense, surprising people (including ‘Ali himself and those who were busy preparing the messenger for burial) by swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr in the Saqifah of Banu Sa’idah all of a sudden, disregarding the texts of Ghadir totally, can anyone then argue with the revelation of the verse being on the Ghadir Day?
The concept of the verse is not more declarative than the hadith al-wilāyah, but rather it implies perfection of religion, and completion of favour, and the Lord’s pleasure, besides its containing a notification to the occurrence of an incident that day for them leading to religion perfection.
Our certainty in the veracity of this belief is even increased, when going through what is reported by Ibn Jarir, on the authority of Qubaysah ibn Abi Dhu’ayb that he said: Ka’b said: “Had this verse been revealed on other than this community, they would have taken the day of its revelation as a feast in which they meet.”! Then ‘Umar said: O Ka’b, which verse you mean? He replied: “This day have I perfected your religion for you.” ‘Umar said: I know the day and place in which it was revealed... that was on Friday, on ‘Arafāt Day, and both of them are celebrated by us as a feast, thanks to Allah.
Second: To believe that the verse “This day have I perfected your religion for you” was revealed on ‘Arafāt Day, is contradictory with the verse of proclamation (āyāt al-balāgh): “O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord”.
which commands the Messenger (S) to deliver a significant matter without which the Message is incomplete. The verse which we have discussed earlier, whose revelation was recorded to be in a place between Makkah and Madinah after the last hajj pilgrimage (hajjat al-wadā‘), the event that was reported by more than a hundred and twenty Companions, and three hundred and sixty of Ahl al-Sunnah ‘ulamā’. So how can it be sensible that Allah perfects the religion and completes the favour on Arafāt Day, and after only one week He orders His Prophet (S), on his way back to al-Madinah to communicate a thing without which the Message is incomplete?? O men of understanding! how can this be correct and reasonable???
Third: If every investigating researcher ponders over the Messenger’s sermon on ‘Arafāt Day, he will never see in it anything new of which Muslims are unaware, or that can be regarded a significant matter with which Allah perfected the religion and completed the favour. It has nothing but an ample of precepts that are cited by the Holy Qur’ān and the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and benediction be upon him and his Progeny), during several occasions, emphasizing on them on ‘Arafāt Day. The following are the precepts stated in the sermon as recorded by all narrators;
- Allah has made inviolable for you your blood and properties as the inviolability of this month and this day you are in.
- Observe your duty toward Allah and wrong not mankind in their goods, and do not act corruptly, making mischief in the earth. Whoever has a trust (amānah) should restore it to its owner.
- People in Islam are equal, no favour is there for an Arab over a non-Arab but only through piety.
- Every blood consgnauinity that was in the Islamic era (Jahiliyyah) is under my foot, and every usury that was made in the Jahiliyyah is under my foot.
- O Mankind, know that selling on credit is increasement in ingratitude... know that time is changed, returning to its first shape when Allah created the heavens and earth.
- Verily, the number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah’s ordinance, four of them are sacred.
- I recommend you to treat women kindly, you have taken them as wives under Allah’s trusteeship, and made their wombs lawful according to the Book of Allah.
- I recommend you to be kind to those whom your right hands possess, feed them of what you eat and make them wear of what you wear.
- The Muslim is the brother to the Muslim, he never cheats, betrays or backbites him; unlawful for him is his blood or anything of his properties.
- The Satan has been hopeless to be worshipped any more, but to be obeyed in other than the acts of you that you despise.
- The worst enemy for Allah is the one who avenges from other than his killer, and the beater of other than that who beat him. Whoever be ungrateful to the favour of his masters, is ungrateful to what Allah has revealed unto Muhammad. And whoever belongs to other than his (real) father, upon him will be the curse of Allah and the angels and all people.
- I am commanded to fight with people till they say: No god is there but Allah and I am the Messenger of Allah. And when they utter it (the witness), their blood and properties shall be protected from me except when it serves them right, and their reckoning is with Allah.
- Don’t return after me as infidels, and misguided, smiting the neck of each other of you.
Those were all the points mentioned in the sermon of ‘Arafāt during the hajjat al-wadā‘, the chapters of which are collected from all the authentic sources so as not to leave any of his (S) precepts reported by the muhaddithun. Do they have anything new in relation to the Sahābah? Nay, whatever it contained is stated in the Qur’ān, and its verdict (hukm) is demonstrated in the Prophetic Sunnah. And the Messenger of Allah (S) has spent his whole life explaining for people whatever was revealed for them, teaching them all the minute details of affairs and necessities in life.
So no sense then in the revelation of the verse of “perfection of religion, completion of favour, and ‘Allah’s approval”, after these precepts (wasāyā) that are known by all Muslims, but reiterated by him (S) for the sake of emphasis, since this was the first time people could meet around him in that huge multitude, besides his informing them before going out to perform the hajj, that it was his last hajj pilgrimage, the fact obligating him to give them those precepts.
But when approving of the second notion, i.e. the revelation of the verse on the day of Ghadir Khumm, after designating al-’Imām ‘Ali as a successor to the Prophet (S) and lord of the faithful, the meaning will be more appropriate and congruous. Because to succeed the Prophet (S) being the most important affair, and it is improper for Allah to leave His bondmen aimless, and for the Prophet (s) to depart people without appointing a successor, leaving his Ummah without a custodian. This is more affirmed while knowing that he never used to depart al-Madinah but after designating someone as his successor, from among his Companions over it, so how can we believe that he passes away without thinking of the matter of caliphate??
And when the contemporary atheists believe in this rule, hastening to designate a successor to the President even before his death, to administer the people affairs, never forsaking them without a president! So how can it be reasoned that Islam, which is the most perfect and complete religion, with which Allah sealed all the legislations, may neglect such a critical issue?!
We have previously recognized that ‘A’ishah and Ibn ‘Umar, and before them Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, altogether realized the necessity of designating a caliph or “otherwise a sedition might take place”. This fact was realized by the caliphs who succeeded them, as all of them designated successors after them, so how is it possible that such a sagacity be ignored by Allah and His Messenger??!
To hold that Allah, the Glorified, has revealed to His Messenger in the first verse (verse of proclamation), when he was returning from hajjat al-wadā‘, to designate ‘Ali as his successor saying: “O Messenger! Deliver that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind.” That is: O Muhammad, if you don’t deliver what I have ordered you, that ‘Ali is the master of the faithful after you, it will be as if you have never completed the mission with which you were delegated, since to perfect the religion with Imamate being something essential for all men of reason.
Seemingly the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and benediction be upon him and his Progeny) was afraid of their objection against him or denying him. In some narrations the Prophet (S) is reported to have said: Gabriel has brought me the commandment of my Lord to stand in this place and inform every white and black that: "‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib is my brother, executor (wasi), successor and the Imam (leader) after me. I asked Gabriel to seek my Lord’s exempting me of this task, due to my awareness of the scarcity of the pious and multiplicity of those vexing and blaming me due to my long association to ‘Ali and strong likeness to him, to the extent that they called me a hearer, whereat the Almighty revealed: "And of them are those who vex the Prophet and say: He is only a hearer. Say: A hearer of good for you..." (9:61). If I wish to mention their names I could do, but I had kindness through choosing to conceal them. But Allah never accepted save to proclaim the order regarding him. So be informed O multitudes of people, that Allah has designated him as a guardian (wali) and Imam for you, making obedience to him incumbent upon everyone...(the sermon).
When the words “and Allah will protect thee from mankind” were revealed unto him, he immediately hastened to comply to the commandment of his Lord, when he appointed ‘Ali as a vicegerent after him, commanding his Companions to congratulate him for attaining the leadership of the believers, and so did they. Then this verse was revealed unto them: “This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you Islam as a religon.”
Added to this, some of Ahl al-Sunnah ‘ulama’ expressly admit that the verse of proclamation (āyāt al-balāgh) was revealed in regard of ‘Ali’s Imamate. They have reported on the authority of Ibn Mardawayh, from Ibn Mas’ud that he said: During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (S), we used to read: "O Messenger, Deliver that which hath been revealed unto you from thy Lord—that ‘Ali is guardian of the faithful—for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind.
When adding to this research the narrations of the Shi‘ah, reported from the Pure Imams, the fact be made clear will be that Allah has perfected His religion by Imamate. That is why Imamate is regarded in the perspective of the Shi‘ah as one of the principles of religion (usul al-Din).
With the Imamate of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib, Allah has completed His favour unto the Muslims, so as not to be left neglected, allured and affeted by desires, scattered by seditions, or be dispersed like sheep without a shepherd.
He approved Islam as a religion for them, as He chose for them Imams, far from whom He removed uncleanness and cleansed a thorough cleansing, bestowing upon them wisdom, and causing them to inherit the knowledge of the Scripture, to be the executors of Muhammad (S). So it is incumbent upon Muslims to consent to Allah’s judgement and choise, submitting with full submission, since the general concept of Islam being full submission to Allah as said by the Almighty Allah "And thy Lord createth whatever He willeth and chooseth too; it is not theirs to choose; Glorified be Allah and Exalted High is He (far) above what they join (with Him).
“And thy Lord knoweth what concealeth their breasts and what they declare. And He is God, there is no god but He! His is all praise, in the first and (in) the last, and His is the authority, and unto Him (only) ye shall be returned”. (28:68-70)
From all this, it can be concluded that the Day of Ghadir was chosen by the Messenger of Allah (S) as a feast, as after designating al-’Imām ‘Ali, and revelation of the verse “This day have I perfected your religion for you...” unto him, he declared: All praise is Allah’s for perfecting the religion, and completing the favour, and the Lord’s approval of my message and the wilāyah (mastership) of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib after me. Then he arranged for him a congratulation meeting, sitting (S) inside a tent, making Ali to sit beside him, commanding all Muslims, including his wives, the mothers of the faithful, to enter upon him in crowds and congratulate him for his post, and greet him for receiving the leadership of the faithful. And so did people whatever they were commanded to, with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar being among those congratulating Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib on that occasion. They came to him exclaiming: Congratulations! O son of Abu Tālib, within a day and night you became our master, and mawlā of every believing man and woman.
When Hassan ibn Thābit, the poet of the Messenger (may Allah’s peace and benediction be upon him and his Progeny), came to know of the Prophet’s gladness and delightness (of the good tidings) at that day, he said to him: Would you permit me, O Messenger of Allah, to recite on this occasion some (poetic) lines that you hear? He (S) said: Say, with Allah’s blessing. You are still, O Hassan, supported by the sacred Essence as long as you keep on succouring us with your tongue.
Then he chanted, saying:
On Ghadir Day their Prophet calls them
At Khumm, so listen to the Messenger as he calls, ...
But, despite this, Quraysh has chosen for itself (a caliph), disapproving that Prophethood and caliphate to be inside Banu Hāshim alone, so as they do injustice to their people by boasting and showing delightness, as was expressed by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb during a conversation held between him and ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Abbās.
No one tolerated to celebrate that feast (‘Id) after its first anniversary, which was celebrated by the Prophet (S).
And when the text on caliphate be forgotten and ignored by people after lapse of only two months, with no one referring to it, so how about the anniversary of al-Ghadir that took place one year ago. But this ‘Id (feast) is related to that text regarding the caliphate (of ‘Ali), in a way that when the text becomes oblivious and the cause vanishes, no trace of that feast will be left that can be mentioned.
This fact continued for long years, till right was restored to its owners after twenty-five years, when it was revived by al-’Imām ‘Ali anew after it was about to be obliterated totally. This was at Rahbah when he appealed to the Prophet’s Companions, particularly those attending ‘Id al-Ghadir, to stand up and witness before people concerning the bay‘ah (swearing allegiance) of caliphate. Thereat thirty Companions, including sixteen Badris (those who participated in the Battle of Badr), stood up and gave testimony. But whoever concealed the testimony and claimed forgetfulness—like Anas ibn Mālik who was inflict.ed by the prayer of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib—could never leave his place but affected with leprosy, weeping and saying: I am befallen by the prayer of the upright bondman (al-‘abd al-sālih) because I have concealed his witness.
In this way Abu al-Hasan established the proof upon this Ummah. Ever since to the present time, and upto the Doomsday, the Shi‘ah celebrate the anniversary of the Ghadir Day, which they hold as the greatest feast (al-‘id al-akbar). True, it is so, since it being the day in which Allah has perfected for us the religion, and completed unto us the favour, and chosen for us Islam to be the religion, being a day of great position with Allah, and His Messenger, and the faithful. Some of Ahl al-Sunnah ‘ulamā’ are reported to have said on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that he said: When the Messenger of Allah (S) took ‘Ali by the hand and said: Of whomever I am his master, ‘Ali also is his master...up to the end of the sermon, Allah—the Almighty and the Glorious—revealed this verse: "This day have I perfected for you, your religion, and have completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam (to be) the religion", whereat Abu Hurayrah said: It is the Day of Ghadir Khumm; whoever fasts on the day of 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah, it will be recorded for him as if he fasted sixty months.
Concerning the narrations of the Shi‘ah reported from Ahl al-Bayt Imams (peace be upon them), in regard of the excellences of that day, you can say what you like. And all praise is Allah’s for bestowing guidance upon us, when making us among those adhering to the guardianship (wilāyah) of Amir al-Mu’minin and celebrating the Feast of Ghadir (‘Id al-Ghadir).
To sum up, the Hadith al-Ghadir (of Whomever I am his master [mawlā], ‘Ali also is his master. O Allah, befriend whoever befriends him and be the enemy of his enemy, and help whoever helps him and forsake whoever forsakes him, and keep the haqq (truth) always with him) is a tradition, or rather a great historical event upon whose reporting all the Islamic Ummah has unanimously agreed. We have previously referred to three hundred and sixty of Ahl al-Sunnah ‘ulamā’ with a far larger number from among the Shi‘ah ‘ulamā’.
Whoever desires to get more details, is asked to refer to the book al-Ghadir of al-‘Allāmah al-’Amini.
After this exposition, it is no wonder to see the Islamic Ummah divided into two sects: Sunnah and Shi‘ah. The former adhering to the principle of shurā in the Saqifah of Banu Sa’idah, interpolating the express texts, contradicting thus the unanimously accepted Hadith al-Ghadir, and other texts.
Whereas the second sect adhered to those texts, never accepting any other alternative, and swore allegiance to the Twelve Imams, never desiring to be removed from thence. True it is, as when I investigate into the school of Ahl al-Sunnah, especially the issue of caliphate, I see the questions being based on surmise and exertion of opinion (ijtihād). All this is due to the fact that the rule of election is devoid of any definite evidence that the person we elect today being superior to others, since we are unaware of the traitor of the eyes, and that which the bosoms hide, And since we are combined in fact of emotions and partisanships and egoism harboured inside our hearts, which will play their effective role, when we are intrusted with the task of choosing one person from among many.
This thesis is not an imagination or an exaggeration, as anyone following up the idea of electing a caliph, will realize that this principle for which he propagates, has not managed and will never succeed at all.
The example is clear in Abu Bakr, the head of shurā, who, despite attaining the post of caliphate (through choosing and shurā), rushed to appoint ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb as his successor, while being on deathbed, without resorting to the principle of shurā. Another example is ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, who participated in founding the caliphate of Abu Bakr, announcing publicly, after Abu Bakr’s demise, that swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr was a slip may Allah protect the Muslims against its evil.
Then when ‘Umar was stabbed, and was sure of his approaching hour, he hastened to nominate six persons to elect, in their turn, one from among them to the post of caliphate. He was certain that a dispute was to erupt among them despite their small number, companionship, precedence in embracing Islam, and extent of godliness and piety (taqwā) they had. Despite all this, it was evident that the act would arouse in them the human emotions against which no one being immune but the ma‘sum (infallible). Therefore, for settling the dispute, he preferred ‘Abd al-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf (over ‘Ali) saying: When you differ, you should take the side of ‘Abd al-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf. But we observed afterwards that they chose al-’Imām ‘Ali to be a caliph over them, stipulating on him to rule according to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger and that of the Shaykhayn (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar).
Thereat ‘Ali accepted the first condition, the Book of Allah and His Messenger’s Sunnah, refusing the sunnah of the Shaykhayn while both the conditions were accepted by ‘Uthmān to whom they swore allegiance as a caliph. About this ‘Ali said:
“...But good Heavens! What I to do with this ‘Consultation’? Where was any doubt about me with regard to the first of them that I was now considered akin to these ones? But I remained low when they were low and flew high when they flew high. One of them turned against me because of his hatred and the other got inclined the other way due to his in-law relationship and this thing and that thing...”
When these, though being the elect of Muslims and the upper class, are so affected by sentiments in a way they harbour grudge and partisanship between this thing and that thing, (in exposing this statement Muhammad ‘Abduh says: Al-’Imām ‘Ali refers to other purposes disdaining from mentioning them), say farewell to the world then.
But ‘Abd al-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf regretted later on his choice, being angry with ‘Uthmān, charging him with breaking the promise, when noticing the bad consequences of his covenant. He was visited by the distinguished companions, then, who said to him: O ‘Abd al-Rahmān, this is the making of your hands. He said to them: I have never thought him to be so, but I swear by Allah that I shall never talk to him at all. then ‘Abd al-Rahmān died while being at odds with ‘Uthmān, to the extent that it is reported that when ‘Uthmān entered upon him to visit him in his illness, he (‘Abd al-Rahmān) turned his face towards the wall, without talking to him.
Then the known developments took place, which ended with the revolt against ‘Uthmān that resulted in his murder, after which the Ummah returned again to elect another Caliph, when they chose ‘Ali for this post. But what a pity for bondmen as the Islamic State faced a great turmoil, turning to be a stage for the hypocrites, and his (‘Ali’s) opposing and tyrannical foes who were covetous for assuming the rostrum of caliphate at any cost, and through any means, even by putting the innocent souls to death.
Throughout those twenty-five years (when ‘Ali was deprived his right), the rules (ahkām) of Allah and His Messenger were changed, with al-’Imām ‘Ali finding himself in the midst of a tumultuous sea, clashing waves, pitchy darkness and overwhelming caprices. He spent the years of his caliphate in bloody wars imposed on him by the Nakithin (breakers of oath of allegiance), Qasitin (iniquitous) and Mariqin (renegades) that ended in his martyrdom. This while he was, feeling pity for the Ummah of Muhammad (S), for whom covetted the divorced (taliq) and son of the divorced, Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abi Sufyān, and his likes such as ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, al-Mughirah ibn Shubah and Marwan ibn al-Hakam beside many others. The only thing that emboldened these people was the idea of consultation (shurā) and selection.
Thereat the Ummah of Muhammad (S) plunged into a sea of blood, with their insolents and wicked ones seizing their affairs, and the shurā turning to the mordacious king, and to Caesarism and Chosroism.
Then that era, which was called by them al-Khilāfah al-Rāshidah (the Rightly-guided Caliphate), and its four caliphs were called al-Rashidun (the Righty-guided) while in fact even those four did not become caliphs through election and consultation (shurā), except Abu Bakr and ‘Ali. Excluding Abu Bakr, since the oath of allegiance to him was a sudden lapse, without the presence of the opposition party as said nowadays, which was represented by ‘Ali and the rest of Banu Hāshim, with those sharing their beliefs, no one to whom the oath of allegiance was sworn in the shurā and election, will be left but ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib, who was unwillingly acknowledged by Muslims, with some Sahābah remaining behind, but he neither imposed the allegiance upon them nor, threatened them.
It was Allah’s will that ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib be the successor of the Messenger of Allah by a determination from Allah — the Glorified — and election by the Muslims, with the whole Islamic Ummah — Sunnah and Shi‘ah-unanimously admitting his caliphate, with their disagreement concerning the caliphate of others as was commonly known. Alas, for people, had they accepted that which was chosen by Allah for them, they would have eaten from above their heads, and underneath their feet (ground), with Allah’s bestowing over them blessings from the sky, and the Muslims’ being the masters and leaders of the world, as willed by Allah if they follow Him:
"...for ye will overcome them if ye are (indeed) believers." (3:139)
But our manifest enemy, the accursed Iblis, addressed the Lord of Glory, by saying:
"Now, because Thou hast sent me astray, verily I shall lurk in ambush for them on Thy Right Path. Then I shall come upon them from before them and from behind them and from their right hands and from their left hands, and Thou wilt not find most of them beholden (unto Thee)". (7:16-17).
Any sane man observing nowadays the situation of Muslims all over the world, being obsequrious, unable to do anything, running after other countries, recognizing Israel which never recognizes them, nor even allowing them to enter Quds, that turned to be a capital for it. Making a glance at the homeland of Muslims today, we can see them being at the mercy of America and Russia, with their peoples being inflicted with poverty, starving to death, whereas the European dogs eating different kinds of meat and fish. There is neither might nor power but in Allah, the Most High, the Great.
The lady of women, Fātimah al-Zahrā’ (may Allah’s peace be upon her), when being at odds with Abu Bakr, delivering her famous sermon to the women of the Muhāirun (immigrants) and Ansār (helpers), prophesied at the end of her sermon about the fate of the Ummah, saying:
“By my life! Time is fecundated, so wait till it gives fruit, then milk pure blood and deadly poison, as much as that which fills up the vessel, and the followers of vanity will then be lost, and the latter shall recognize the consequence of what befell the earlier ones. Then renounce your world, and be undismayed for sedition, awaiting a sharp sword, and authority of a tyrannical aggressor, and an all-inclusive uproar, with despotism befalling you from the oppressors, rendering your shade so trivial, and your assemblage cut down. Alas for you, and where are you to go, while it has been made obscure to you, can we compel you to accept it when you are averse thereto.”
The lady of all women said the truth through her prophecy, as she is the offspring of Prophethood and source of message. Her words came true regarding the life of the Ummah, and it is not known that the destiny awaiting the Ummah may be uglier than the past, that is because they are averse to that which Allah has revealed, therefore made their actions fruitless.
Ibid., Vol. V, p. 127.
 Jalāl al-Din al-Suyuti, op. cit., Vol. III, p. 18.
 . Ibid., al-Suyuti’s interpretation of the verse “This day have I prefected your religion for you” in Surat al-Mā’idah.
 The full text of the sermon is reported by al-Hafiî Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in the book al-Wilāyah. Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti has also reported a sermon with the same denotation and identical words, in his al-Durr al-manthur, Vol. II, p. 57.
 Al-Shawkāni in Tafsir Fath al-Qadir, Vol. III, p. 57; and Jalāl al-Din al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-manthur, Vol. II, p. 298, on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbās.
 Al-Hākim al-Hasakāni reported from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri his interpretation of the āyah; and al-Hafiî Abu Nu‘aym al-’Isbahāni in his book: Mā nazala min al-Qur’ān fi `Ali.
 This episode was narrated by al-’Imām Abu Hāmid al-Ghazāli in his book Sirr al-‘ālamin, p. 5; and also by al-’Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Vol. IV, 281; with al-Tabari in his Tafsir, Vol. III, p. 428; beside al-Bayhaqi, al-Tha‘labi, al-Dāraqutni, al-Fakhr al-Rāzi, and others.
 Al-Hafiî Abu Nu‘aym al-’Isbahāni, op. cit.; al-Khwārazmi al-Māliki in his al-Manāqib, p. 80; al-Kanji al-Shāfi‘i in Kifāyat al-tālib; Jalāl al-Din al-Suyuti in his book al-’Izdihār fimā ‘aqadahu al-shu‘arā’ min al-’ash‘ār.
 Ta’rikh al-Tabari, Vol. V, p. 31; Ta’rikh Ibn al-’Athir, Vol. III, p. 31; Sharh Nahj al-balāghah, of Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. II, p. 18.
 Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 370, and Vol. I, p. 119; al-Nasā’i in al-Khasā’is, p. 19; Kanzal-‘ummāl, Vol. VI, p. 397; Ibn Kathir in his Ta’rikh, Vol. V, p. 211; Ibn al-’Athir in Usd al-ghābah, Vol. IV, p. 28; Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalāni in al-’Isābah, Vol. II, p. 408; al-Suyuti in Jam‘ al-jawāmi‘.
 Al-Haythami in Majma‘ al-zawā’id, Vol. IX, p. 106; Ibn Kathir in his Ta’rikh, Vol. V, p. 211; Ibn al-’Athir in Usd al-ghābah, Vol.
 Ibn Kathir in his book al-Bidāyah wa al-nihāyah, Vol. V, p. 214.
 Sahih al-Bukhāri, Vol. VIII, p. 26, “bāb rajm al-hublā min al-zinā”.
 Ta’rikh al-Tabari and Ibn al-’Athir, after the death of ‘Umar ibn al Khattāb and successorship of ‘Uthmān.
Muhammad `Abduh in Sharh Nahj al-balāghah, Khutbah No. 3.
 Ta’rikh al-Tabari and Ibn al-’Athir, about the chronicles of the year 36 H.; Muhammad ‘Abduh, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 88.
 Al-Tabari in Dalā’il al-’Imāmah; Ibn Tayfur in Balāghāt al-nisā’; ‘Umar Ridā Kahhālah in A‘lām al-nisā’; Ibn Abi al-Hadid in Sharh al-Nahj.