Until now, the discussion was about the matter that mankind thinks about a bright future by the command of wisdom and innate intuition, a future which is much different with today, and there is no sign of this much of darkness in that.
But now, this question is asked that how should such a big change happen, by gradual reforms or in revolutionary and fundamental ways?
Essentially, and generally, there is no common opinion about the way of performing social reforms among scientists. Some of them believe in gradual reforms that are called “reformists”; and there are “revolutionists” against them who consider that no essential change in society is possible without a revolution.
They believe that as changes of nature happen in revolutionary and sudden ways, and gradual “quantitative” changes reach a level that become “qualitative”, but are replaced with their opposites by revolution.
Adherents of this principle have made many branches for the way of revolution and social mutation in all social changes, which all of them are neither reasonable nor according to historical issues and objective evidences, but it is undeniable that this principle is acceptable in many cases.
The thing which seems to be more closer to reality is that the degree of corruption of societies are different; where corruption has not become epidemic and expanded, gradual reforms can form the basis of reformative programs.
But, where corruption has covered everywhere or has penetrated in most social organizations, it is not possible to overcome the disharmonies without a fundamental revolution and mutation.
And this is exactly like repairing a great building with gradual amendments and returning the beginning glory to that, but when base is being destroyed from inside and main columns are falling then they destroy it completely and construct a new building over its ruins.
We have many evidences in hand for correctness of this belief:
1) Gradual reforms are always being put on the same old bases and their effects depends of the health of the bases, and in other words, patterns and regulations are same as previous patterns and regulations in “reforms” and it is useful when patterns have been remained healthy, otherwise there is no benefit in “designing the balcony” when “the base of the house is destroyed” (referring to a Persian proverb). Here, new patterns should be used and fundamental issues should be studied in the way of change.
2) Gradual reforms are usually being performed in peaceful ways and in most of the cases they rely on “logic”, and it is useful when there are intellectual and background preparation in society, but where these backgrounds are not available, the logic of revolution which is the “logic of power” should be used; although, logic has also en effective role in “revolutionary changes”, but “revolutionary forces” make the last strike.
Using non-revolutionary methods in societies, in which corruption has penetrated to the depths, gives opportunity to main factors of corruption to equip themselves against the “reformists” and take “counteractive” and “deterrent” tools for confronting their weapons; exactly the same as powerful microbes which have become immune against gradual usage of “medicine” and continue their job; and won’t be destroyed except by a sudden attack of powerful medicines!
3) Societies in which corruption has penetrated to the root, powerful anti-reform factors have occupied all sensitive centers of society and can neutralize any gradual reform plan; except that reformists surprise them by a “revolutionary attack” before they “organize” and “equip” themselves, and demolish them!
4) Usually, great reformist and revolutionary powers won’t remain hot, excited, ready and united for a long time, and they are not used in proper time then maybe they lose their “effectiveness and sharpness” by the pass of time, and anti-revolution elements penetrate their mind gradually; therefore, when expanded reforms are needed, their maximum power should be used “extremely fast”; and they should be used before they faint and before backward powers reduce their strength and excitement.
5) History also shows that these kinds of societies have not been formed through gradual reforms, but their corrections have been performed by mutation and revolution.
Great prophets and reformist men of the world have always chosen revolutionary method when they faced such societies, and made their steps in the way of jihad and fight until the last drop of strength.
Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and especially prophet of Islam, peace be upon him, were all revolutionary men.
Other men and women who changed the feature of the history and were turning points in the way of human life or their own societies were all revolutionary people and this is living evidence that correcting these kinds of societies are not possible without a revolution.
But, about correcting general conditions of the world and removing current system, which is based upon wasting active powers, discrimination, oppression and injustice, and replacing it with a “fair system” free of these disharmonies, the situation is more clear; because this the most revolutionary act which should be performed in the world, and broader and more expanded than any other revolution.
In this case, how is it possible for such expanded and fundamental change to happen through gradual reforms?!
Here, it should explicitly be said that:
If present world, which is full of impartiality, oppression and corruption, has to be taken away from the chasm of destruction and inexistence then expanded revolution should happen in that.
Revolution in all fields:
In intellectual, cultural, moral, economical, political, and in the fields of laws and programs.
Another discussion which can complete previous discussion is that, by considering several evidences which show that finally human life will see the brightness, and the dark clouds of insecurity and injustice will be removed from the sky of human civilization, this question arises that will the expanded revolution which should execute this plan be performed through the perfection of material laws or should this goal be achieved by the help of spiritual assets?
And in other words, is continuing the conditions of “current one-dimensional life” and completing that capable of execution of such plan, or should the change happen from this point and one-dimensional perfection gives its place to multidimensional perfection:
Human values to be revived,
Moralities to be utilized in an expanded way,
Faith and Affection to be revived,
And by using these assets, rebellious mechanical and material life to be restrained?
Noticing the main roots of present misfortunes and disharmonies shows that completion of this situation is in fact, completion of misfortunes! And continuing this way will be continuing the crises.
Today, democracy and government of people over people is known as the fairest way of government, that in most parts of the world only its name can be heard; assume that this type of government is established all around the world, then that is the beginning of all big problems.
We see at a glance that there are only four types of government in the world:
1) Autocracy in its main feature: the purpose if individual autocracy, which its conditions are clear in the past and the present and it is possible to say in a short sentence that: The source of any kind of slavery, misfortune, misery and backwardness of humans is this deadly type of government.
2) Autocracy in the clothes of democracy: it means the same individual bloody autocratic and oppressive government, which has worn the clothes of democracy and brings its title and pretends democracy by establishing “false parties and assembly”. That party and assembly which the list of its members and leaders is written and ready before the establishment and the players wear their clothes behind the scene one by one and get ready for playing their roles by appearing on the scene.
Behinds the scene, they all eat and drink and laugh and deride together, but when they come on the scene one agrees and the other opposes, one of them is in the progressive wing and the other is in the constructive wing, one is coordinator of this wing and the other is coordinator of that wing, they start fake fights for deceiving the public, who aren’t deceived by these acts anymore; even they attack each other by closed fists and angry faces for completing this scene!
This kind of government was not available in the past history, because people and even dictators were frank, and maybe they didn’t think that it is possible to offer autocracy in the shape of democracy.
This type of government is the phenomenon of our age, the age of concisions, duplicities and the age of changing faces! And it is bitter fruit that its kernel belongs to the past and the shell belongs to the present, and its only goal is to delay the date of freedom of nations for some days and is capable of nothing other than that.
3) Dictatorship of the Proletariat: this type of government was not available in this way in the past, and it is product of mechanical age and exclusive to communist countries, in which “proletariat” (workers) takes the power and achieve its desire in all aspects under the title of Marxism.
Although, Marxists themselves have chosen the title “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” as the motto of their government, but regardless of the meanings which are hidden inside this title, it should be studied that whether proletariat governs such societies or members of the central committee of the party and its secretary general, a party which neither is comprehensive nor have free elections nor have a sign of democracy, and autocracy and tyranny of the heads of the government, and violence and depriving people from freedom in that is not hidden to everyone.
While history is being written and the list of governors and rulers is being compiled, is it possible to put the names of Stalin, Khrushchev and Mao Tze Tung except in the category of the most rigorous autocrats whom their governing time remembers burdensome miseries of humanity!
It is true that the leaders of these societies make effective steps in adjusting the capitals and it is true that they end the time of legendary wealthy persons, but is it possible to ignore this clear fact that they consume billions of the wealth of their countries foe strengthening the bases of their powers, and perform whatever they want unbridled, and take the right of criticism, revision and strike and any kind of questioning from their people.
4) Democracy in its main feature: this kind of government, which is considered as the best and the most complete way of government in today’s world, and even pretending and claiming that is a cause of pride for many of the leaders, needless to mention its objective and external existence, is summarize in one sentence:
In this system of government, all people from any group or class can seemingly go to voting boxes freely and choose their real representatives, and give their future to them for some years, under circumstances.
They also seemingly legislate the laws, which consider that are useful for people, freely by consultation.
And sometimes the representatives choose the chairman of this executive committee and sometimes directly by people, that is called “prime minister” or “president”.
But, by all the advantages and benefits which can be seen in this type of government, when we look inside it and its final product then we see that, despite its beautiful appearance, it is so scary; because:
1) Group Exploitation - The first product of this system, which is government of “majorities”, by considering that always minorities are limited and few people who can be ignored in group calculations, is that permits group exploitation and permits fifty-one percent of the world to impose their thoughts and goals to the other forty-nine percent, and ignore the benefits of a considerable group which is only two percent, and even sometimes one percent, fewer than them for saving the benefits of the majority.
And this is a strong strike to justice and freedom in the world of humanity, which is being performed under the title of the most developed type of government.
2) Minorities in the shape of majorities- Worse than that is in this type of government “minorities” are often appear in the shape of “majorities”, and impose their beliefs to them forcefully; in the way that those who possess “wealth” and “power” brainwash the majorities and deviate the thoughts to the way of their desire by having mass media and by feeding their desired goals, purposes, programs and persons, directly and indirectly, to commercial media, radios and televisions in the way practically a government appears that moves only toward the benefits of this multiplied minority (those who excessively demand power and money).
Accordingly, it is no surprise that in countries, which are governed by this system, governments are “usually” supporters of bourgeois and big capitalists (although seemingly free lections are performed by public participation and written participation of them in voting boxes).
Albeit, if majority can firstly dethrone this group and then perform an election then maybe the real majority rules the society’s destiny, but this matter will also be put in a loop and becomes impossible.
And if we can justify the government of real majority over minority (assumedly) in some way then certainly, government of minority over the exploited majority is not justifiable anyway.
3) Equal, in the conditions of inequality - In this governing system, any person in any condition has the right of one vote, which means:
A great scholar is completely equal to an illiterate person; an aware, experienced and nationalist politician is equal to an inexperienced person, and a virtuous reputable human is equal to a polluted infamous criminal thief …
And this kind of injustice is clear because one of these two can be thousand times more future-maker than the other.
It is true that if we want to make differences between people then we will face unclear criterion, but whatever it is, this is a kind of deficiency, which is included in the nature of western material democracy.
4) Following instead of leadership - In this system, governments and representatives of assemblies certainly oblige themselves to observe the demands of majorities (unconditionally), because they are counting on them for the present and the future, and without this following, their positions and powers will be in danger.
Therefore, in the nature of this way of government, the issue of leadership is practically replaced with following, and social corruptions, oppressions, aberrances and pollutions, which are majorities’ favorites, from any kind, are followed and even resonated.
By considering this fact, it is no surprise that for example we see that unfortunately, the Parliament of England enacted the law of “homosexuality”!, because homosexuals have representative and even representatives!
By considering what was said, you will confirm that how much this material ideal government is non-ideal because:
Firstly, material laws, by assuming that are useful for weak persons and spread the justice, have no execution assurance, because the matter of “justice” that is accompanied by ignoring lots of benefits and material facilities, doesn’t have a correct and wise definition for powerful persons in an environment which all values are specified according to material criterions; therefore, in such environments, only weak people claim justice and equality not powerful persons.
But, if spiritual values are considered then justice will have also a definition for them, because in execution of justice, although they lose some of their benefits, but they will reach a spiritual value and superiority.
Clear example of this matter is expanded international organizations, which established after the Second World War. These organizations, which are the most important so-called centers for providing universal peace and thinker politicians of the world participate in them, have been a plaything for the influences of nig powers or a conference hall for small governments that can express some of their opinion in there, until now.
Secondly, historical studies and experiments show that excessive desires of human have been never saturated through material means; it means that a person has never reached a stage that says this much is enough for me.
Human desires are unlimited in this kind and material facilities, whatever they are, are still limited and these limited facilities cannot fulfill those unlimited desires and this “contradiction of facilities and demands” has made war the everlasting equipment of material life.
But, if spiritualities and belief of God, and noticing to human and moral values and responsibilities before that great source who is above the entire material and secular world, are revived in the hearts of humans then it can restrict this instinct and utilize in a correct way and establish peace and security instead of war.
And in other words, excessive demands of humans can be saturated with spiritual matters, which are unlimited, and that contradiction, which was the main reason of war and oppression, will be removed.