The Rules of Food and Drink
Issue 921: The meat of domesticated sheep, cows and camels, likewise, undomesticated sheep, cows, goats, donkeys and gazelle is lawful. However, the meat of the horse, mule and donkey is disliked (Makrooh). The meat of carnivorous animals, in general, and elephants, rabbits and insects is forbidden.
Issue 922: The meat of birds possessing talons is forbidden. Likewise, the meat of birds whose wings remain spread while flying or their gliding is more than their flapping is forbidden. As for the birds who are constantly flapping or their flapping is more than their gliding, then, its meat is lawful. From this group are types of doves (pigeons), turtledoves and partridges. However, the hoopoe (Hudhud) is disliked (Makrooh).
Issue 923: When a piece of an animal is cut while the animal is alive, whether it be fat or flesh, eating it is forbidden.
Issue 924: The eating of fourteen (14) parts of an animal is forbidden (according to obligatory precaution in some):
2) The male sexual organ
3) The female sexual organ
4) The placenta
7) Pituitary Glands
8) Bone Marrow
9) The two yellowish nerves extending along the back from the neck to the tail.
10) The gall bladder
11) The spleen
12) The urinary bladder
13) The pupils of the eye
14) The nerves that are between the hooves
This is in large animals. As for small animals like the sparrow, then, there is no objection in eating that which is not distinguishable or not separable from these things.
Issue 925: The eating of something filthy by which man's nature is repulsed, is forbidden (like mucus and similar things) although it is pure.
Issue 926: It is forbidden to eat or drink things that inflict an important harm for people. Smoking cigarettes and other types of smoking, when it comprises an important harm to people according to experts and research, it is forbidden also. The usage of narcotics whether it be by injection, smoking, eating or whatever other method, is also forbidden.
Issue 927: Drinking wine (Khamr) is forbidden and it is one of the major sins. Rather, in some traditions it is the greatest of sins. If someone deems wine lawful, if he was mindful that making wine lawful necessitates the denial of Allah and the Prophet, then, he is a non-Muslim (Kaafir). It has been related on the authority of Imam Ja'far As-Saadiq, peace be upon him: The drinking of wine is the key of all evil, and the addict of wine negates his reasoning, removes his light, destroys his manliness and it encourages him to be bold in committing the unlawful. (It causes) the shedding of blood and committing fornication. He does not believe while he is intoxicated that he is jumping to his unlawful deeds and he does not rationalize that and that his drinking only increases every evil.
He said that it is the mother of filth and the head of every evil. There will come to the drinker of wine an hour wherein his intellect is nullified and he is not aware of his Lord. He does not abandon disobedience except by committing it nor abandon the forbidden except by fatigue nor abandon a family relation except by breaking it and there is no depravity except that he will commit it.
He who drinks a drink of wine, Allah does not accept his prayers for forty days. He who drinks one sip of wine, Allah the Almighty and Majestic, His angels, His Messengers and the believers curse him. If he drinks until becoming intoxicated from it, the spirit of faith (Imaan) is withdrawn from his body and the feeble-mindedness, filthy, accursed spirit will embark, then, he will abandon the prayer.
Issue 928: Intended by wine is every fluid intoxicant. Beer is also counted as one the wines. Drinking even one drop of wine is forbidden, even less than that is also forbidden.
Issue 929: Sitting at the table at which wine is being drunk is forbidden. Eating from the table, when it is man, he is counted as one of them although the food is lawful.
Issue 930: When the life of a Muslim is in danger by reason of hunger or thirst, it is obligatory upon all that they give him food and water and save him from death. At that time, it is lawful for him to eat some of the unlawful things when he does not find any other thing besides it.
Issue 931: Performing a number of acts is recommended at the time of eating in hope of divine reward, they are:
1) To wash the hands before eating.
2) To wash the hands after eating and dry them with a towel.
3) That the host begins eating before all and finish eating after all.
4) To say: Bismillah (In the name of Allah) before eating and after finishing eating to say: Al-Hamdu Li-llah (The Praise is for Allah). When there are a number of types of food on the table, say Bismillah at the time eating each type of food.
5) To eat with the right hand.
6) When there is a group of people eating at a table, it is recommended that each one eat from the food that is before them.
7) That small mouthfuls are eaten.
8) That no hurry be made in eating and lengthen the sitting for food and chew the food well.
9) To pick the teeth and remove the food between the teeth and wash the mouth after eating.
10) To avoid throwing edibles aside. As for when the eating is in open places, then, leave whatever remains on the table for birds and animals.
11) To eat twice every day, first in the beginning of the day and, second, in the beginning of the night.
12) To eat salt in the beginning of the meal and at its end.
13) To wash all fruits with water before eating them.
14) To invite someone to the table as a guest to the extent possible.