Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 6 months ago

To my knowledge, there are no hadith (addressed to either men or women) which discuss choosing between marriage and career (or marriage and studies), although there were both men and women with skilled professions among the sahabah (according to the professions of their society such as healing or craftsmanship). Perhaps it wasn't seen as something that one chooses between. That is, it was assumed that most people would marry and some people would also do other things. 

Although people have had professions and vocations for a long time, it seems that the modern idea of career began a hundred or two years ago, after the Industrial Revolution. 

Similarly, the idea that large numbers of people should invest a large portion of one's life in full-time studies in an institution, while doing little else, is also quite recent. So, the circumstances we have today are different from those in the time of the hadith.