as salam alaikum
Absolute wilayah belong to Allah and He has authority over all His creation. He creates as He wishes and He gives authority to whoever He wills in order to establish His own authority.
In some theological treatises two types of wilayah have been mentioned:
- Wilayah Takwiniyyah: that is creational authority like direct intervention and control over things and affairs in the creation. The human power to walk, to climb, to carry heavy loads, etc. are all examples of this authority.
- Wilayah Tashri'iyyah: that is legislative authority like the right or duty to establish a specific ruling or take a particular decision after a legitimate approval or consultation.
In theological debates the discussion around these arguments focused on the limits of the wilayah in relation to the Prophet and Imams, peace be upon them.
Miracles are instances of wilayah takwiniyyah that Allah bestowed upon His prophets; it is however a divine act beyond ordinary human faculties. As far as the legislative aspect, it is known that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, was subject to specific rulings only for him with the exclusion of the rest of the Ummah. Yet, the rule was from Allah and not from himself.
Some scholars have claimed that Allah has given total or partial authority to the Prophet and Imams, peace be upon them, for the administration of the world and that they have control over it, at least partially, with His permission. They base their opinion relying on certain hadith and some intellectual concepts. This is the maximum extent of the concept of wilayah takwiniyya in relation to the Prophet and Imams.
Other scholars however reject such view and consider it against the Qur'an, implicitly or explicitly, based on conjectures and weak ahadith.
With prayers for your success.