Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 months ago

The question of what luck is, and whether or not it exists, is a challenging metaphysical question. 

Scholars who take a strict reading of Islamic theology will generally reject the idea of "luck", if one defines "luck" as something amoral (that is, acting outside a moral compass) which exists independent of the divine involvement in the universe. This is especially if it seems to go against a sense of divine justice. "Luck" is sometimes seen as belonging to pre-Islamic and/or non-Abrahamic belief systems. 

That is to say, things that are seen as "lucky" tend to be seen as Allah's will or something occurring on the level of metaphysical cause and effect (for instance, I help an orphan today, and am saved from a car crash tomorrow). This is apart from hard work and smart work; for instance, some people are "lucky" in their exams simply because they study smart.

Instead, they will focus on concepts like baraka (things, people, places, etc, being blessed by Allah), divine destiny, divine mercy, divine punishment, and so forth. So, for instance, one might increase "luck" by doing good deeds or giving charity. (That is, it is not mere luck but rather cause and effect.) 

Certain things which might be considered "luck" in some cultures are also ascribed to divine decree; for instance, Allah decrees sustenance for a human being. So, receiving sustenance is ultimately through the decree of Allah and the acts of angels in obedience to Allah in delivering it, even if we also have to put forth efforts. Or, someone may receive a scholarship to Harvard and be considered "lucky", but someone else may not receive that scholarship because it is not their destiny and they are meant to do something else in life, so it is not really about "luck". 

On the other hand, it is not impossible to find Muslims who do hold that luck exists as a metaphysical thing, and that some people seem to have more of it. After all, Muslims have held a great many views over the past 1000+ years. 

In any case, most people are not ruminating over these philosophical questions when wishing someone good luck on something, and it's fine to say.  

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