How does a good Muslim survive in non Islamic nations surrounded by secular humanists or established homosexual communities? Is it proper to disengage with such political and social narratives that are not in the best interests of Islam?
This is really a personal question. Some people thrive on engaging with these social issues, whereas others do not. Insofar as it does not harm anyone, it is good to be self-aware and acknowledge what is beneficial and harmful for ourselves and our faith, and then attempt to live in a such a way that is beneficial for our peace of mind and faith. This would include decisions on where to live, where to work, and who to socialize with. Certainly, there are enough Muslims engaging with these issues today, and so it isn't necessary for every single Muslim to do it.
Secular humanism can a complicated matter, since it is heavily involved in the educational system in some countries, and most people adopt the dominant beliefs of their country and integrate them into their religious views. Of course, secular humanism has good and bad points like everything else. When one considers these ideas analytically rather than just absorbing them, it can deepen one's faith, but, again, that is personal! Do keep in mind that the Prophet lived in a society that did not support the views he was teaching and yet Islam took root there.
As Muslims, we are encouraged to be aware of the world around us. However, in this day and age, many people suffer from information overload. It simply isn't possible or healthy to follow every issue all the time. It is good to be selective in what one wants to focus on - not to have a biased or slanted view of the world (as happens often) but simply in order to use one's time and mental energy well. Social media is usually the cause of this overload, and it is easy to regulate one's use of social media.