According to the Qur'an, Allah sent divinely appointed guides to all peoples before the time of Islam.
It is related that there were 124,000 prophets, although I am not personally sure whether this is meant to be taken literally or simply to mean "many".
The Qur'an mentions about 25 prophets, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Joseph, Shu'ayb, Lot, Solomon, Moses, Jesus, and so on. Chronology for some can be deduced when lineage is listed (e.g. Issac and Ismael are the sons of Abraham) but challenging if not much is known about a specific prophet.
The names of some other prophets are mentioned in hadith. However, the names of most of the prophets have not been mentioned in the Qur'an or hadith. Perhaps, it wouldn't have been meaningful to the people at the time of the revelation to mention prophets in faraway regions.
There is an interesting and rather lengthy book called _God's Emissaries: From Adam to Jesus_ by Shaykh Rizwan Arastu which discusses the stories of the prophets before Islam based on the Qur'an and hadith. Perhaps it might be helpful!