Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 3 years ago

According to Shaykh al-Mufid (Kitab al-Irshad):

The Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, had twenty-seven children, male and female:

1. Al-Ḥasan

2. Al-Ḥusayn

3. Zaynab the elder

4. Zaynab the younger, who was given the kunya Umm Kulthūm.

Their mother was Fāṭima, the blessed, mistress of the women of the worlds, daughter of the master of those sent by Allāh and the seal of the prophets, the Prophet Muhammad.

5. Muḥammad, who was given the kunya Abū al-Qāsim. His mother was Khawla, daughter of Ja‘far b. Qays al-Ḥanafī.

6. ‘Umar

7. Ruqayya They were twins.

Their mother was Umm Ḥabīb, daughter of Rabī‘a.

8. Al-‘Abbās

9. Ja‘far

10. ‘Uthmān

11. ‘Abd Allāh

(The last four) were martyrs with their brother al-Ḥusayn on the plain of Karbalā’. Their mother was Umm al-Banīn, daughter of Ḥizām b. Khālid b. Dārim.

12. Muḥammad, the younger, who was given the kunya Abū Bakr.

13. ‘Ubayd Allāh

Both of these were martyrs with their brother al-Ḥusayn on that plain. Their mother was Layla, daughter of Mas‘ūd al-Dārimī.

14. Yaḥyā

His mother was Asmā ̓, daughter of ‘Umays al-Khath‘amī, may Allāh be pleased with her.

15. Umm al-Ḥasan

16. Ramla

The mother of these two was Umm Sa‘īd, daughter of ‘Urwa b. Mas‘ūd al-Thaqafī.

17. Nafīsa

18. Zaynab, the youngest

19. Ruqayya, the younger

20. Umm Hānī ̓

21. Umm al-Kirām

22. Jumāna, who was given the kunya Umm Ja‘far.

23. Umāna

24. Umm Salama

25. Maymūna

26. Khadīja

27. Fāṭima

These, the blessings of Allāh be on them, had different mothers. Among the Shī'a, there are those who mention that Fāṭima, the blessing of Allāh be on her, after the Prophet had a miscarriage with a son, whom the Prophet, may Allāh bless Him and His Family, had (already) named during her pregnancy as Muḥsin. 

According to this group there were twenty-eight children of the Commander of the Faithful, the blessing and peace of Allāh be on him. Allāh knows and judges best.

(End quotation from Kitab al-Irshad)