This video explains from a linguistic perspective why the Qur'an does not name non-Middle Eastern prophets.
The Shi'i hadith collections do, however, include some narrations on the Buddha.
See below for a paper on it by Dr George Warner:
“Buddha or Yūdhāsaf? Images of the Hidden Imām in al-Ṣadūq's Kamāl al-dīn” on Academia.edu