Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 year ago

Addendum: It may depend on whether one is using the term for matters of religious law (such as marriage) or in a theological sense. It also depends on how one is using the word "agnostic".

In a theological sense, the Qur'anic term "kafir" is used for those who deny the existence of God or the blessings of God, or God's message, not for those who are genuinely uncertain. 

Insofar as an agnostic person neither affirms nor denies these things, and really doesn't know, they are somewhere in the middle (neither mu'min nor kafir). 

Some people call themselves "agnostic" because they dislike organised religion (for instance, they had a bad impression of it growing up) but they don't reject the idea of the divine. So this is not theologically the same thing as a "kafir". What it means is that they do not identify as part of a specific religious group, and also are not sure what they believe personally. Oftentimes, this type of agnostic is a genuine seeker of the truth and is in flux since they haven't found answers to their questions yet. 

However some people use "agnostic" as a loose synonym for atheism or just not caring enough to think about spiritual matters, and so this type of person could be called a kafir, meaning that they are fully engrossed in the material world and heedless of anything else.

Today there is a tendency to use "kafir" casually as a synonym for "non-Muslim". However, because we live in a sensitive era, it is good to be sensitive and thoughtful about how we use language (not the least because some people are killed on grounds of takfir). This is why when working with Qur'anic texts, I personally try to avoid translating "kafir" as "disbeliever" (or, even worse, "infidel") and instead go for a more literal translation along the lines of "deniers".

Also, it is good to remember that the Prophet and Imams were open to having dialogue with people who were not sure about their beliefs. If they were just called "kafirs" and rejected, Islam wouldn't have spread. 

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