The idea that every human being is created with its own associated jinn, called a qareen or hamzaad, is mentioned in Sunni hadith. This jinn is usually considered to be an inherently satanic spirit, and its job is to misguide people (except for the Prophet (S), who is said to have tamed and converted his). In the Sunni tradition, this idea is typically taken as an interpretation of Qur'an 43:36.
To my knowledge, there are no hadith through Shi'i chains which speak of the qareen. (These hadith appear in Bihar al-Anwar, but they are the Sunni hadith, not separate Shi'i hadith.) Ayatollah Nasser Makarem Shirazi dismisses the idea of the qareen as superstition.
This is not to say that no single Shi'i person accepts the idea of the qareen, as some Shi'is may embrace these hadith. However, it isn't considered a fundamental belief or requirement in Shi'ism to believe that people have a qareen or to interpret that Qur'anic verse as speaking of a qareen.
As with most matters of the unseen world, God knows best.