In Shi'i books there are a number of texts (hirz/ahraz) for protection, etc, such as Hirz Imam al-Jawad. Also in the hadith book Wasa'il al-Shi'a there are some hadith indicating that it is acceptable to wear taweez based on Qur'an.
You can read this section in Arabic at http://www.rafed.net/books/hadith/wasael-6/was6012.html#135
Some of these hadith are taken from the book Tibb al-A'immah; you can read the relevant section of the book in English at https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-medical-wisdom-tibb-al-aimma/invocation... (I am not fond of their choice of the word "charms" but one can undestand what is meant when reading it.)
There are many aspects of the way that the seen and unseen world interrelate that we do not understand. Today, the culture of modern science has shifted such that only external or material causes are considered worthy of consideration. However, in many traditional cultures, there was a view that disease can have both a physical and unseen/spiritual/metaphysical component; and so there were both external interventions (such as prescribed diets or pharmaceutical mixtures) as well as spiritual/non-medical interventions.