I think that it could be useful for you to read the book "Prayer (Salat), According to the Five Islamic Schools of Law", in particular the section concerning Maghrib since it analyzes the various opinions in details: https://www.al-islam.org/shiite-encyclopedia/prayer-salat-according-five-islamic-schools-law-part-1#time-maghrib-and-%E2%80%98isha%E2%80%99-prayers
Zeinab Donati has been studying books about various Islamic subjects for more than 19 years. She is deeply interested in history and politics as well as social issues in particular those pertaining to women.
This question and the whole etiquette of marriage, what is permitted, allowed, and impermissible is nicely explained in the following books: Marriage and Morals in Islam by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi: https://www.al-islam.org/marriage-and-morals-islam-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi/chapter-three-islamic-sexual-morality-2-its
I also suggest to browse the category if Marriage of Al-Islam.org to find more useful texts and lectures on the subject: https://www.al-islam.org/library/marriage
In addition to what have been nicely replied, I would like to share a list of texts that discuss about evil in relation with Divine Justice, hoping that they will be interesting read that will bring a lot of reflections and a deeper understanding on this subject inshaAllah.
Divine Justice and the Problem of Evil, by Ghulam Husayn Adeel
Divine Justice or The Problem of Evil, by Javad Shayvard
Discursive Theology Volume 1, Lesson 25: Evil and the Justice of God
Evils, An Excerpt from Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari's Divine Justice
Ultimate Questions in Philosophy of Religion, by Shaykh Mansour Leghaei, chapter 17 & 18
Thanks for your question.
There are many interesting and well-written books about Imam Mahdi (aj).
I recommend the following ones:
Al-Imam al-Mahdi, The Just Leader of Humanity
An Inquiry Concerning Al-Mahdi
The Promised Savior: An inquiry into the imamate of Imam Mahdi (as) from the viewpoint of Muslim thinkers
The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam (A Historical Background)
That is just one small portion of texts concerning Imam Mahdi (aj) that can be found at Al-Islam.org, there is a whole section dedicated to him (aj):
Hope this is helpful inshaAllah.
I would suggest, as precaution, to remove any traces of the mascara and re-do ghusl, wudhu and also the prayer, just to be sure that everything is performed as it should be.
It could be useful to see the rulings about the validity of wudhu’ (but also ghusl):
5. The organs of wudu must be ritually clean (tahir) before washing or wiping them.
Besides the ritual cleanliness (taharat) of the organs of wudu, they must also be exposed. In other words, there should be nothing on them which might prevent the water from reaching the skin. Special care should be taken by women in case the lipstick, nail-polish, kohl, and eye shadow are such that the water does not reach the skin. If the dirt under the long nails is not more than normal, then it will not harm the wudu.
Taken from the book Ritual and Spiritual Purity by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, online at:
And in general, about wudhu’:
You may also want to refer to the Risalah of the Marja’ Taqlid you follow.
Masturbation is undoubtedly a sin in Islam and it is not permitted in any circumstances.
As this verse of the Holy Qur’an states:
"And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, - for them, they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors." (23:5-7)
To research further the Islamic view about masturbation and its consequences, please refer to the following texts:
- Philosophy of Islamic Laws by Ayatullah Naser Makarem Shirazi & Ayatullah Jafar Subhani, in particular question 27:
- Marriage and Morals in Islam by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, Chapter 3: Islamic Sexual Morality 2
- Youth and Spouse Selection, by Ali Akbar Mazaheri:
There is no hadith that allows to have sexual intercourse before marriage, it is a very wrong assumption. It is undoubtedly forbidden.
Please kindly refer to the book "Marriage and Morals in Islam" by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi:
The main duty of a woman in marriage, the only thing that she cannot deny her husband unless under specific circumstances.
From the office of Ayatullah Seestani: it is the woman’s duty when it comes to her conjugal life and yielding to her husband’s needs (even preparing themselves for sex is part of yielding) to give in to her husband’s lustful needs. There are many ahadith regarding this issue. In the case of her not yielding, she becomes nashizah (transgressor, rebellious) and the rulings of nushuz will apply to her.
The duty of carrying out the marital relationship lies mainly with the women and is of extreme importance; there are many traditions that relate to this matter, here below only a few ones as example.
Imam Sadiq (a) has said: “A woman came to the Holy Prophet (s) and asked him what the duty of the wife is towards the husband? He replied: “That she answers his (sexual) needs, even if they are in the situation of riding on top of a camel.”
Imam Baqir (a) narrated from the Holy Prophet (s) where he told women that: “Do not make your prayers lengthy in order to prevent your husband’s from having sexual relations with you.” In another tradition Imam Sadiq (a) has explained in relation to this aspect of women’s actions and its end consequences that: “A woman who keeps her husband waiting on their place of sleep and does not become willing to have sexual relations with him until he falls asleep, till the time that the man remains asleep the angels will curse that woman.”
(Al-Kafi, chapter “The woman’s rights regarding her husband” vol. 5, pp. 507-508.)
If a woman denies herself physically to her husband for many years, he has undoubtedly the right to ask a divorce and/or to marry another woman.
Thanks for your question.
These words literally mean: “The hand of Allah is tied up”. It is just a small portion of the verse 5:64 that talks about the Jews making fun of God.
Please read through these three Commentaries of the Holy Qur’an for further explanations.
Sorry, it is quite a long read.
1) [Pooya/Ali Commentary 5:64]
It is reported that when the Muslims had to raise funds for their defence, the Jews made fun of the Muslims by saying that their God had become close-fisted. In fact they themselves were niggardly. They habitually uttered blasphemies. Allah, the almighty, is as generous as ever. He spends according to His infinite wisdom and universal plans. (Refer to the commentary of rahmanir rahim and rabba alamin in surah al Fatihah). The Muslims willingly contributed to the defence fund to show their spirit of sacrifice in the way of Allah, who, through such circumstances, tests their faith in Him.
The revelations revealed to the Holy Prophet increased their (the Jews) rebellion and unbelief. They availed every opportunity to kindle the fire of war against the Muslims, but on all occasions it was extinguished by Allah either by raising feuds and quarrels among themselves, or by granting victory to the Muslims, yet secretly and stealthily, often very cunningly, they strived to spread corruption in the land.
2) Allamah Tabataba’i, Al-Mizan, vol. 11, Commentary of verses 57-66
The verses forbid taking those who make mockery of Allãh and His communications as friends from among the People of the Book and unbelievers, and enumerate some of their evil characteristics including their breaking the covenants of Allãh and so on – the matters related to the theme of this chapter, i.e. exhorting people to keep their promises and covenants and showing the demerit of going against promises, etc.
All the verses seem to be revealed in one context, although possibly some of them could have particular reason of revelation.
And the Jews say: "The hand of Allãh is tied up!" Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expands as He pleases.(5:64)
The Jews did not agree that the laws of religion could be abrogated, and, for this reason, they did not accept that Tawrãt could be abrogated; rather they rebuked the Muslims for abrogation of some of their laws. Similarly, they did not accept the doctrine of al-badã’ (اَلْبَدَاء) in matters of creation, as is seen from various Qur’ãnic verses. We have elaborated this topic in the first volume of this book, under the verse: What-ever signs We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or like it, . . . (2:106). Some light has been thrown on it in other places too.
The verse: "And the Jews say: 'The hand of Allãh is tied up!' " might be referring to their above-mentioned views; however, the fol-lowing clause in their rebuttal: "Nay both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases", does not leave room for such interpretation. It rather shows that they had uttered these sinful words particularly with reference to sustenance: Either they had said it especially about the believers, because generally they were afflicted with poverty and their condition was straitened. So, they talked in this way as a mockery against Allãh, alluding that He does not have power to give riches to His believing servants nor can He rescue them from need and humiliation. But this opinion is not worthy of consideration, because the verse is in the chapter of "The Table", which was revealed [in the last years of the Prophet's life] when the Muslims enjoyed abundance of livelihood and lived a pleasant and luxurious life.
Or, they said it because of the famine and draught, which had made their lives miserable, disturbed their economic system, and lowered their standard of living, as appears from some of the traditions that explain the reason of revelation. But this explanation too does not agree with the context of the verses, because evidently the verses expose their various characteristics like their enmity and treachery against the Muslims whom they hated to the extreme. These verses do not allude to the sinful talks they had uttered regarding their own selves.
Or, they said it when they heard the Qur’ãnic verses, e.g.: Who is it that will lend to Allãh a goodly loan (73:20). So they said: "The hand of Allãh is tied up! He is not able to obtain the necessary funds to spend in His requirements for propagating His religion and reviving His mission." They had said it as a mockery and a jest against Allãh, as appears from some other traditions relating to the cause of revelation. This explanation appears nearer to reality.
In any case, this ascription – that the hand of Allãh was tied up and He was over-powered in His plans, when some adverse situation had developed – does not go against their religious teachings nor is it alien to the descriptions and comments found in the present Tawrãt. According to Tawrãt, there were many things which Allãh was unable to do and which prevented Him from enforcing His will time and again, as strong persons hinder weaker ones in their activities. You may look at the stories of the prophets, like Adam and others as they appear in Tawrãt.
So, many aspects of their belief allow them to ascribe to Allãh what is totally against the sanctity of His status, although in the present context they had uttered these words as a jest and mockery – we know that every action of a man emanates from some aspects of belief which he holds and which encourages him to do it.
"Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say": It is an invocation of evil against them, of the same type which they had ascribed to Allãh, and which went so clearly against His sanctity and sacredness – their declaration that Allãh's hand was tied up and He has no power to do what he pleases. Accordingly, the clause: "and they shall be cursed for what they say", is in explanatory conjunction with the clause: "Their hands shall be shackled", in as much as their hands being shackled displays the divine curse on them, because Allãh's speech is His action, and He curses someone only through penalizing him with punishment either in this world or the next. Thus, this curse means a punishment equal to shackling of their hands or more total and comprehensive.
Someone has opined that: "Their hands shall be shackled", is [not a curse, but] a statement showing that they have already been inflicted with chastisement because of their arrogance against Allãh in saying: "The hand of Allãh is tied up!" But the former interpretation is more understandable.
"Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases": It is the rebuttal of their claim: "The hand of Allãh is tied up!"
The sentence: "both His hands are spread out", is an allusion to His all-encompassing firmly rooted power; and such usage is very common.
Allãh has said: "both His hands" (although the Jews had used singular in their talk, "The hand of Allãh is tied up!") in order to show His complete and perfect power; as is the case in the verse: He said: "O Iblīs! What prevented thee that thou shouldst do obeisance to him whom I created with My two hands? Art thou proud or art thou of the exalted ones?" (38:75), as it indicates or rather clearly shows the use of perfect power in Adam's creation; or as they say: 'You do not have two hands on her, to emphasize absence of every power and every favour.'
The dictionaries often give various meanings for 'hand' other than the body organ, like power, strength, favour, ownership and so on. However, the fact remains that word was originally coined for the said organ, and it is used in other meanings as allusion, because all other meanings have some affinity with various aspects of the hand, e.g. magnanimity and spending is related to it in its management and raising up or putting down.
Therefore, when the Book or Sunnah ascribes hand to Allãh, its connotation changes with the context. For example, in the clauses: "both His hands are spread out [5:64]"; and: whom I created with My two hands (38:75), "hands" means power and its perfection; and in the clauses:… in Thine hand is the good . . . (3:26); Therefore glory be to Him in Whose hand is the Kingdom of everything . . . (36:83); Blessed is He in Whose hand is the Kingdom, . . . (67:1) and other such verses, "hand" means kingdom and authority; likewise, in the verse: . . . Be not forward in the presence of Allãh and His Messenger . . . (49:1) the phrase means 'in the presence of' as translated above. "He expends as He pleases": It elaborates the clause: "both His hands are spread out".
3) An Enlightening Commentary into the Light of the Holy Qur'an vol. 4
وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللّهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُواْ بِمَا قَالُواْ بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَاء وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا وَأَلْقَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاء إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ كُلَّمَا أَوْقَدُواْ نَارًا لِّلْحَرْبِ أَطْفَأَهَا اللّهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ
64. "And the Jews have said: The hand of Allah is tied up! and cursed be they for what they have said. Nay, both His hands (of Power) are (always) spread out. He bestows as He pleases. And what has been sent down to you from your Lord will certainly increase many of them in insolence and infidelity; and We have cast enmity and hatred between them till the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindle a fire for war, Allah extinguishes it. They strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief makers.
One of the clear examples of the vain statements and sinful words of the Jews, which were generally referred to in the previous verse, has been pointed out in this verse.
Its explanation is that history shows that once the Jews were living in a very powerful state. They were ruling over a vast part of the inhabited world of that era, of which the time of David and Solomon, son of David, can be mentioned as an example. In the time after that, too, their authority continued to be exposed with some changes, of course.
But, with the advent of Islam, the light of the star of their power declined especially in Mecca and Medina.
The Prophet's fights against the Jewish tribes known as Bani-Nadir, Bani-Ghurah, and the Jews of Kheybar caused them to become very weak. At this time, considering their past glory, authority and power, some of them mockingly said that Allah's hand was tied up with chains and would not give them anything.
Since the rest of them (those Jewish people) were content with, them, too; the Qur'an has attributed this qualification to all of them, by saying:
"And the Jews have said: (The hand of Allah is tied up! ..."
In answer to them, and in order to blame and reproach such a wrong belief, at first, Allah says:
"...Be their hands tied up! and cursed be they for what they have said....."
Then, to nullify this unjust opinion, the Qur'an says:
"....Nay, both His hands (of Power) are (always) spread out. He bestows as He pleases. ..."
Allah is neither forced in His affairs, nor is He obliged to the natural phenomena or the momentum of time; but His Will is above everything and effective in all affairs.
Then, it implies that even these verses, that make the secret of their statements and opinions manifest, instead of having a positive effect on them and turning them back from the wrong path, cause many of them to become rather stubborn and also to increase their rebelliousness and faithlessness. The verse says:
"...And what has been sent down to you from your Lord will certainly increase many of them in insolence and infidelity....."
But, for these unjust statements and opinions, that they utter and the obstinacy that they have in the way of disobedience and disbelief, Allah has assigned a heavy chastisement for them in this world. He (s.w.t.) in this verse says:
"...and We have cast enmity and hatred between them till the Day of Resurrection. ..."
And, by the last part of the verse, the Qur'an points to the struggles and efforts of the Jews for kindling the flames of war. It also points to the struggles and efforts of the Jews for kindling the flames of war. It also points to the grace of Allah in protecting and rescuing the Muslims from these annihilating flames, where it says:
"….Every time they kindle a fire for war, Allah extinguishes it…"
And, in fact, this divine incident is one of miraculous aspects of the life of the Prophet (S).
Then, the Qur'an continues saying:
"...They strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief makers."
Thanks for your question.
If the son is illegitimate he has no right to inherit, so yes, the will is completely valid.
Please refer at the texts here below.
- The Illegitimate Child (Walad al-Zina)
The lmamiyyah say: There is no mutual inheritance between an illegitimate child and its fornicator mother, in the same manner as there is no such inheritance between the child and its fornicator father, because there is a common impeding cause between the two, i.e. fornication.
- Views of Imamye scholars concerning inheritance of the illegitimate child
1. Most Imamye scholars assume lack of inheritance between the illegitimate child and his natural parents. In this regard Sheikh Toosi states:" child of adultery does not have lineage and does not inherit from the adulterer and the one who bore him and his heritage reaches his children and in case children do not exist, the property [inheritance] belongs to the Imam. Contemporary scholars assume lack of inheritance between the child of adultery and his parents (Khoee, 1996:414). Thus, what causes inheritance is relation and lineage where relation is connection of somebody with another by means of the latter whether relation is led to him or not (Imami 1993)
- Custody of Illegitimate Child
Jurists see that hidana and nafaqa (expenditure) of an illegitimate child must be undertaken by the child biological parents, although the child does not inherit from them. Makārim Shīrāzī, Istiftāʾāt-i Jadīd, vol. 3, p. 266.
- Imam Khomeini, Tahrirol Wasaail in English, Volume 4, Section 44: Laws on Inheritance, Fourth Impediment, birth by Fornication (Zina), page 29 onwards.
Thanks for your question.
There is no rulings against performing Hajj, Umra or Ziyarat for a woman accordingly to Shi'a Fiqh, the issue is only about safety. It is not clear what you mean by "a group of other Muslimahs". Do you mean an organized group?
The issue again is not Islamic ruling, but safety and the difficulty to get a visa to visit countries like Iraq and Iran. The most logical way is to find a hamla, a group specialized in caravans to visit holy places. Try to find a few local ones, inshaAllah they will explain you in details what is needed and the procedures.
They could be able to able to help out to perform Hajj and/or Umrah in some cases.
In preparation of any pilgrimage, I suggest you to read "Your Personal Guide to Hajj Umrah Ziyarat" at:
Thanks for your question.
Examining and doing medical procedures while studying to become a registered nurse or a doctor, being a part of the training required to reach that position is absolutely permitted.
Kindly refer to the following texts online:
- A Code of Practice For Muslims in the West by Ayatullah Sistani, under the chapter “Medical Issues”, especially question 355 and 356:
- Islamic Rulings: Medical Issues, by Sayyid Khamanei, chapter “Rules Regarding Looking, Touching and Examining”: