Shaikh Vinay Khetia has studied at various traditional Islamic seminaries in London, Iraq and Syria. He has an undergraduate degree in Religious and Near Eastern Studies from the University of Toronto and an M.A. in the History and Philosophy of Religion from Concordia University. He is a PhD Candidate in the department of Religious Studies at McMaster University with a focus on the intellectual history of Islam and specifically Shi'ism.
Abortion is not permitted in this case. It is only permitted in cases where the mothers life is at risk and there are circumstantial conditions in that scenario.
Ghusul al janaba is wajib following the scenario described in the question. She will have to repeat prayers that were performed while in state of impurity. Same goes for a man.
The vast majority of contemporary Shia jurists allow for Friday prayer and state that it can replace salaat al-zuhr ( on Friday) as the Friday prayer is classified as al-wajib al-takhiyri (an optional obligation) -hence the option is there to perform either Friday prayers (along with all its attending conditions) or salaat al-zuhr. Yes Friday prayers is discussed in the Qur'an as per an entire Sura being entitled "Friday" ( al-Jumu'ah). For instance, if one looks at Iran or Iraq you would see millions of Shia Muslims attending the various Friday prayers held in Basra, Najaf, Karbala, Tehran, Qum etc.
There is no single 'Sunni understanding of history'. Islamic history and its vast sources are too vast and multi-vocal for it to have one understanding on this matter. The Sunnis themselves have multiple views on the subjects even among the theological schools of the 'asharis and mu'tazila (some of the theological schools among Sunnis). However the predominant view is that she died a natural death. However the Sunni leaning historical tradition such as History of al-Tabari and the Ansab al-Ashraf of al-Baladhuri do indicate that something violent or potentially violent occurred at the hosue of Fatima (as) following the death of the Prophet. For instane al-Tabari relates that the end of the his life, the first caliph said: " I wish I did not throw open/or unveil the house of Fatima - lam akshif manzil fatima, however they ( Ali, Fatima and those in the home) had locked it down with hostile intent - ghalaquhu 'ala al-harb. So clearly something violent or potentially violent occurred as per this narration found in al-Tabaris's history under the section dealing with the final words of the 1st caliph at his death. That being said, the Sunni historical tradition for the most part do not describe her as being injured or killed as a result of that incident. However there were others such as al-Nizam, the famous Mu'atazlite theologian (who would also be considered to belong broadly to the Sunni school or at least non-Shia in a formal sense) who describes her as being injured and dying from this and he was in-fact blamed for this and condemned by later scholars for holding such a view. Thus it was a view that existed in the Muslim community.
To my knowledge there is no specific book of duas written by the 12th Imam (ajt). What we do have is a series of letters ( tawqi'at) attributed to the Imam many of which which were written by him or dictated by him. As for dua's there are numerous ones that are attributed to the Imam and can be found in early sources such as Misbah al-Mutahajjid of Shaykh Tusi ( d.460 Ah). Sh al-Tusi had numerous turuq or isnads reaching contemporaries of the Imam during ghayba al-sughra as did later scholars such as Ibn al-Mashhadi who narrates the famous Ziyarat Al Yasin which was taught by the 12th Imam when we wish to turn to him and seek his guidance. To conclude, there are numerous supplications and even some ziyarat which can be reasonably traced back to the 12th Imam. However there is no book written by him per say at least in any extant surviving form.
wa Allahu al-'alim,
And God is the knowing,
Salaamun Alaykum neither are technically haram but both lead to haram things or bad situations. What is haram is to engage in any interaction that is lustful leading to something indecent. It is for this reason that Islam has very clear guidelines when it comes to interaction between opposite genders (who are not mahram) and that is it should be formal and not be lustful in anyway nor leading to that situation. This may even include listening to her voice if that becomes something that contributes to lustful feelings and certain imaginations. My advice to you is to get married as soon as possible either permanently or temporarily since interacting with a non-Mahram outside of official work or clearly defined formal work is not appropriate whatsoever as it very often leads to a situation that is not becoming of a mu'min or mu'mina.